Sneferu (Pyramids and Tomb)

King Sneferu was an interesting fellow, obviously quite stubborn, and over the course of his life managed to build three pyramids (only one “true”), in all using more stone than any other pharaoh in history. Dahshur was home to two of Snef’s pyramids, the Red Pyramid and the Bent Pyramid.

The Bent Pyramid, off at a distance from where we were, is exactly as the name suggests. While working on the pyramid, the planners discovered that if they continued at the angle they were building, the pyramid would collapse. Instead, they ordered a quick angle revision, and so now we have the pleasure of viewing one of history’s biggest blunders. The Red Pyramid, however, was finally the “true” pyramid that Sneferu obviously craved, and, fittingly, became his burial place.

Bent Pyramid

We were excited to see the Red Pyramid, because this was finally our chance to go inside one of these ancient tombs. Contrasting to Giza, Dahshur was relatively empty, and so we could easily descend into the pyramid without having to battle our way through hordes of other, obviously sweatier and smellier, tourists. Leaving my sister, who was quietly evaporating, behind, my parents and I started the steep climb up the side of the pyramid.

Reaching halfway up, we stood in front of the tiny black shaft that would lead us 60 metres into the middle of the pyramid, and we suddenly felt very unsure of the whole situation. Gallantly, in the name of exploration, we pushed on and started the backwards descent into the yawning abyss. As we moved deeper and deeper (and darker and darker, more and more humid, smellier and smellier), I couldn’t help feeling very eerie, especially when I contemplated the fact that, 4500 years before, the dead pharaoh was moved along this very passageway to his eternal resting place. If there had been room to shudder, I would have.

They all smiled at me with the sort of smile that only a group of humming, handholding French people inside a 4500 year old pyramid could give, and then continued their communal chant. Even more embarrassingly, I could hear my parents’ loud, excited murmurings as they reached the end of the shaft, blissfully unaware of the pyramid-cult we had managed to stumble upon. I was beginning to worry that these people required some sort of human sacrifice, but luckily they just seemed content to hum.

We quickly moved across the room to the next antechamber, relieved to be away, but also slightly anxious that the only way out of the pyramid was through the previous room. You can imagine how the aforementioned sense of eeriness had by this time erupted into full-blown creepiness, and the butterflies that inhabited my stomach were having a rather out-of-control rager. It was in this stage of heightened terror when suddenly, out of the stillness of the tomb, came the most blood-curdling scream I have ever heard.

This woman would have made Janet Leigh from Psycho jealous. Obviously if I had been any less of a man I would have fainted right then and there, images of a linen-trailing mummy and his magical curses flying through my mind. Of course there was no Curse of Sneferu; it turns out the woman, one of the cult-members, had suffered a deadly attack of claustrophobia, and was literally unable to move. Unfortunately for her she still needed to climb 60 metres up a dark, form-fitting shaft. I suppose the moral of this story is: “Don’t climb into the middle of a pyramid if you suffer from intense claustrophobia!” (Which in itself seems rather obvious, but who am I to say?). See Cartouche of King Sneferu here.

Note: You can travel to Giza and Dahshur by train or by bus.

The Death of Ramses II

When King Ramses II was 92 years old, In his reign in Year 67, he was finally united with his beloved Amon. His tomb in the Valley of the Kings (KV7) was completed long before his death. Unfortunately for us, very little was left that the plundering tomb robbers hadn't stolen. Using the magnificent tomb of the relatively minor King Tutankhamon as a point of comparison, we can imagine that it must have been absolutely splendid. Ramses mummy was removed and hidden by the Valley priests at the beginning of the Third Intermediate Period, and the discover of KV5 was in a cache at Deir el-Bahari in 1881.

The new discover for KV5:

In 1989, an old tomb that had been deemed unimportant by Howard Carter in 1902 was rediscovered. It was KV5, now known to be the tomb of many of the sons of King Ramses II. It contains over 110 corridors and chambers dug hundreds of feet into the hillside. It is one of the largest tombs in all of Egypt, and is currently under excavation.

Daily hundreds of tourists stream past the remains and temples that once were either surrounded by the hustle and bustle of daily Ancient Egyptian activity, or echoed the silent communication between the Gods and humankind. Three thousand years have slipped over the desert, and day by day new discoveries appear.

The massive stone monuments, vibrating sympathetically with their celestial counterparts, have been covered and uncovered by those sands over the years. But late at night, when the humans sleep, and the nocturnal animals roam, Sirius rises in the east. And the wind whispers the name of King Ramses II or Ramesses II.

Cartouche of Ramses II

The temple in the city of Sohag of Upper Egypt, in the north side of the temple of Seti I. Any one can go to Sohag city from the capital (Cairo) by Nile river cruise or by train.

Related Posts:

Queen Hatshepsut
Tutankhamun (1334-1325 B.C.)

Family, Life and Childhood of Ramses II

The son of King Ramses I was Seti I, and was the pharaoh who truly restored Egypt power to the greatness and harmony it had enjoyed before the Amarna period (which in the capital moved in the reign of Ankhenaten). He instituted a major building program and a clearly defined foreign policy abroad. He assumed the title "repeater of births," which indicated the beginning of a new and legitimate era.

The efforts of Seti secured the eastern borders with Syria and the western borders with Libya. Later, foreshadowing the famous battle of Kadesh led by his son Ramses II, Seti attempted for once and all to restore Egyptian dominance in Most importantly, Setis 13-year reign represents one of the most important periods in the history of Ancient Egypt, architecture and culture. The quality of the reliefs the temples and his tomb are unique in all of Egyptian art.

Seti continued on the great building project his father began in Karnak that his son Ramses would later complete: the Hypostyle Hall in the Temple of Amon. He built the magnificent temple at Abydos, the city sacred to Osiris. It is in this temple that the "Royal List of Abydos" is found. This is one of the important sources of Egyptian history and chronology.

Beyond this temple is the massive and mysterious "Osirion" or "Tomb of Osiris।" historians also attribute this to Seti, although there is evidence that it is much older. Setis finest work was his tomb in the Valley of the Kings (KV17), the discover of KV17 by Belzoni in 1817. It is the longest, deepest and most beautiful of all of the tombs in the Valley.

The Valley of The Kings

Seti married within his own military "caste." King Ramses mother was Queen Tuya. She outlived her husband by many years. She was queen-mother in until her death in Year 22 or 23 of the reign of King Ramses the great, and statues of her appear frequently in Ramses temples and constructions. She appears on the facade at Abu Simbel, and in statue at the Ramesseum and at Ramses Delta capital, Piramesse. A beautiful portrait of Tuya was appeared in 1972 during a reclearance of her large tomb in the Valley of the Queens.

At 10 years of age, Seti recognized Ramses as "Eldest Kings Son," even though there were no other sons, for Ramses older brother died young. He was carefully trained as future king. He was named after his grandfather, a military man, the vizier and friend of Pharaoh Horemheb. Ramses, too, was trained in the martial techniques, and by his mid-teens he is seen as a participant of Setis Libyan campaign in the inscribed portrayals at Karnak. He rode alongside his father, learning directly from the pharaoh, but also learned from the masters of the various techniques and sciences: the inscriptions refer to the youth as overseer in the cutting of obelisks in the granite quarries of Aswan and working on his fathers many building projects. Again and again, inscriptions from the epoch around the empire refer to Ramses as an astute young leader.

One of the first sources of Ramses early years is found at Abydos, the dedication stele he set up in his father Setis temple. After his fathers death, Ramses had sailed to Abydos, the sacred shrine and ancient burial site of Osiris, and found that his fathers massive temple project was left unfinished and the burial sites of the earlier kings lay in ruins. Ramses immediately summoned the Court and reinitiated the project, making it clear that he would fulfill Setis wishes. On the stele he describes his youth.

King Seti himself made me great, while I was a child, until I reignedI was installed as eldest son, as hereditary prince upon the throne of Geb [the earth god or the world god] [He, Seti, said] "Crown him as king, that I may see his beauty while I live with him"He equipped me with women, a royal harem, as beautiful as those of the palace, those of the South and North were under my feet.

By the age of 15, Ramses had already married his two principal wives, Nefertari and Istnofret. Nefertari was always the Chief wife, until her death in Year 24 of Ramses reign. Her famous tomb is the most beautiful of all in Upper Egypt. The paintings inside her tomb are extraordinary, and have recently been completely restored. At Nefertaris death, Istnofret took her place. Apparently, she lived until Year 34.

These two wifes bore Ramses most important children. The first son of Ramses, Crown Prince Amenhirkhopshef, as well as at least three other sons and two daughters, were born unto Nefertari. Istnofret bore Merneptah, who would eventually succeed his father. She also bore a son named for his father, and Khaemwaset, who is often referred to today as the first archeologist. In his lifetime, as High Priest of Memphis, he was venerated as a great magician and restorer of ancient monuments.

One example of his restoration projects is the pyramid of King Unas at Saqqara, which contains the famous "Pyramid Texts." Over the course of his life, Ramses had eight principal wives. Following pharaonic custom, Ramses included several family members in his harem. One of his sisters and three of his daughters eventually became royal wives.

The power of Egypt forced the Hittites's king send his daughter to be wed to Ramses at the conclusion of the Hittite wars, and another one of his daughters came to join her 7 years later. There were also a number of Syrian and Babylonian royal ladies in Ramses harem. Ramses fathered over 100 children. He outlived twelve of his heirs. Merneptah, Ramses thirteenth son, became pharaoh when he was in his sixties.

Rameses had his name cartouched and writings about him made so deep in the surface of temples, that any successor would not be able to remove them.

Ramses II Childhood:

As a boy Ramses II (or
Ramesses II) knew royalty was his future. When he was only about 10, he became heir to the throne of the 19th dynasty of Egypt by order of his father, Pharaoh Seti I. Ramses later married Nefertari. At about age 25, Ramses became Egypt’s pharaoh, or ruler, when his father died.

Ancient Egyptians thought of their pharaohs as gods in human form. Ramses’ cartouche (car−TOOSH), or symbol, shows his throne name. Part of it means "One Chosen by [the sun god] Re."

By the time Ramses came to power, the great Sphinx and the pyramids at Giza had already been standing for more than a thousand years near the banks of the Nile River. To remind people of his godlike status, Ramses built large statues and temples. One of his massive works was the city of Pi−Ramses, or House of Ramses. He placed obelisks, or tall stone pillars, everywhere and decorated the palace with brightly colored tiles.

Before Ramses ever became pharaoh, the Hittites, an enemy people, had taken control of the Egyptian city of Kadesh. During Ramses’ fifth year as pharaoh, he fought to get the city back. In battle, the Hittites caught Ramses and most of his troops in a surprise attack. According to Ramses’ accounts−−inscribed on stone temple walls all over Egypt−−he bravely charged the enemy, holding them off until more Egyptian soldiers arrived. The conflict ended in a draw, but Ramses declared victory. The Egyptians and the Hittites signed a treaty 16 years later, and Ramses also married a Hittite princess. A peaceful time period then began, and many Egyptians prospered under Ramses’ rule.

Ramses II Family:

King Ramses II married about 200 wives and fathered over 100 children. As a young man he co-ruled Egypt with his father, Seti I. He also successfully led Egypt in a series of wars against the Hittites and greatly expanded Egyptian territory.

The 19th Dynasty ended in political turmoil. Small wonder, with 59 daughters and 79 sons! Talk about a succession crisis! Ramses II outlived his first 12 sons, and was succeeded by his 13th. This son had a reasonably successful reign, but the dynasty stumbled along to end with an assortment of short and unremarkable claimants to the throne.

The original Prince Khaemwaset was one of the more famous sons of Ramses II as he became High Priest of Ptah but this Prince Khaemwaset although he also became a priest of Ptah did not rise to the same heights as his namesake.

Tomb of Ramses II's Sons:

The search for the tomb of Ramses II sons is on:

All of the other tombs in the vicinity were already excavated.

KV5 was only cursorily explored, then lost again.

Burton’s maps showed KV5’s entrance in the southern half of a long slope not far from KV6, the tomb of Ramses IX.


Queen Nefertari, which is located a few hundred feet from her husband’s memorial. Nefertari’s temple looks much alike the one we just visited in our visit to Egypt, but it has more statues, a total of 9, and the sanctuary has three doors leading inside. Most of the statues show the queen as making offerings to various gods of her era.

Related Posts:

Egypt Under Ramses II
The Death of Ramses II
Sneferu (Pyramids and Tomb)

List of Egyptians Pharaohs

List of Egyptians Pharaohs, The rulers of ancient Egypt:

c. 1725 BC – Sobekhotep IV
c. 1695-1685 BC – Ay
c. 1615-1595 BC – Nevbererau I
c. 1560 BC – Taa (Thebes); first engagement between Thebes and Hyksos kings (Apepi) occurred during his reign

c. 1555 BC - Apepi (Hyksos)
1555-1550 BC – Kamose (Theban)
1550-1525 BC – Ahmose
1525-1504 BC – Amenhotep I
1504-1492 BC – Thutmose I
1492-1479 NC – Thutmose II
1473-1458 BC – Queen Hatshepsut
1479-1425 BC – Thutmose III (some co-regency with Hatshepsut)
1427-1400 BC – Amenhotep II
1400-1390 BC – Thutmose IV
1390-1352 BC – Amenhotep III
1352-1336 BC – Amenhotep IV
1336-1327 BC – Tutankhamun
1327-1323 BC - Ay
1323-1295 BC – Horemheb
1295-1294 BC – Ramses I
1294-1279 BC – Sety I
1279-1213 BC – Ramesses II
1213-1203 BC – Merenptah
1200-1194 BC – Sety II (yes there is a gap)
1194-1188 BC – Saptah
1188-1186 BC – (queen) Tausret – Sety’s principal queen
1186-1184 BC – Sethnakht
1184-1153 BC – Ramesses III – last to send expeditions to Punt
1153-1147 BC – Ramesses IV
1147-1143 BC – Ramesses V
1143-1136 BC – Ramesses VI
1136-1129 BC – Ramesses VII
1129-1126 BC – Ramesses VIII
1126-1108 BC – Ramesses IX
1108-1099 BC – Ramesses X
1099-1069 BC – Ramesses XI
1069-1043 BC – Smendes – power base at new delta city of Tanis
1043-1039 BC - Amenemnisu
1039-991 BC – Psusennes I
984-978 BC – Osorkon the Elder (Libyan)
978-959 BC – Siamun
959-945 – Psusennes II
945-924 BC – Sheshonq I (Libyan)
924-889 BC – Osorkon I (Libyan)
874-850 BC – Osorkon II (“)
850-825 BC – Takelot II (“)
825-773 BC – Sheshonq III (“)
702-690 BC - Shabitqo
690-664 BC – Taharqo (Nubian)
664-656 BC – Tanutamani
664-610 BC – Psamtek I – reunified Egypt (I know there’s an overlap, I don’t know why)
610-595 BC – Nekau II
595-589 BC – Psamtek II
589-570 BC – Apries; revolt of mercenaries at Elephantine during this time
570-526 BC – Ahmose II
526-525 BC – Psamtek III
525-522 BC – Cambyses
522-486 BC – Darius
486-465 BC – Xerxes
424-405 BC – Darius II
405-359 BC – Artaxerxes II
393-380 BC – Hakor
380-362 BC – Nectanebo I
362-360 BC – Teos
360-343 BC – Nectanebo II
343-338 BC – Artaxerxes III
205-180 BC – Ptolemy V Epiphanes reign
1532-1528 BC – Ahmose’s conquest of Avaris
818-793 BC – Pedubastis I – first local ruler to call himself king
746-716 BC – Nubian ruler Piy launches military expedition into Egypt and takes over Thebes (in Aswan) and many towns and cities in northern Upper Egypt
727-720 BC – Tefnakt declares himself king and gains control of western delta and Memphis
672-664 BC – Assyrian records indicate rule of king Nekau I; killed by Nubian King Tanutamani in 664 BC
c. 574-570 BC – Apries makes good use of Egyptian fleet in strategically well-conceived series of campaigns moved to Cyprus and Phoenicia
c. 510-497 BC – Darius completes construction of canal that runs from Pelusiac branch of the Nile thru Adi Tumilat to the Bitter Lakes and the Red Sea 343-342 BC – Artaxerxes III and Persians invade and conquer Egypt’s Nectanebo II (who has 20,000 mercenaries). See ancient egypt List of King's Cartouches

King Khufu

King Thutmose III

King Tut


nefertiti woman is queen nefertiti

Queen Nefertiti: Her name means “the beautiful [or youthful] woman has come.” In ancient times, when the scene was complete, Nefertiti would have been seen with her husband, the pharaoh Akhenaten. King Akhenaten and Nefertiti are best known for leading a religious transformation. They tried to change Egyptian religious practice from the worship of multiple gods to the worship of one deity only—Aten, the disc of the sun. They moved the capital of Egypt from Thebes to Amarna and dedicated it to Aten to show their devotion. At some time during her husband’s reign, Nefertiti was made core gent, the pharaoh’s equal. Proof of this is seen on other reliefs that show her the same size as the pharaoh.

Nefertiti was the wife of the pharaoh Akhenaton. Akhenaton was an Egyptian pharaoh who reigned Egypt from 1353 to 1336 BC. Nefertiti supported her husband's revolution in the Egyptian religion. Which was the religion that celebrated the power of the sun disk Aten and the sun god Aton.

Nefertiti is best known for her portrait bust, found at Tell el- Amarna. Which was the main province in the country. Nefertiti had six daughters. Two of them had later became queens of Egypt. At around the 12th year of Akhenaton's reign Nefertiti probably retired after losing favor from Akhenaton, if not she must have died. Some of Nefertiti's things were found in a place in Amarna.

Nefertiti is standing with her arms raised offering a bouquet of lotus flowers to a god whose multiple arms and hands reach out to accept the gift. Who do you think the god could be? What might the many hands symbolize?

Nefertiti jumps out at us from history thanks to this sculpture, which was found in the abandoned Amarna workshop of the sculptor Tuthmosis by German archaeologists in 1912. She stood out in her time for her power as well as her beauty. Ancient carvings show images of Nefetiti killing traditional Egyptian enemies. Usually, only pharaohs were shown in this powerful and aggressive pose. Nefertiti was Akhenaten’s most important wife, and the mother of six daughters. Historians aren’t sure if she or another of Akhenaten’s wives was the mother of King Tut. This statue is now in Germany inside one of the most famous museum in the world.

King Akhenaten, his beautiful wife Nefertiti, and his probable son Tutankhamun were all part of this dynasty (dynasty 18). During this time one of the most dramatic changes in Egypt took place: Akhenaten built a new city as a capital, Amarna, for a god named the Aten, and outlawed all other gods. The Amarna period, sometimes called “The Amarna Experiment,” resulted in some of the bestknown art, tombs, writing and records of ancient Egypt. That is why, even though the period was only around 30 years long, it is one of the most famous in Egyptian history.

In fact Akhenaten focused in his religion ideas and didn't care of the foreign affairs like traded or the power of Egypt in Asia.

Questions and Facts about Nefertiti:

Did Mutnodjmet really exist?

Yes, Mutnodjmet really existed, as did Nefertiti, Queen Tiye, Akhenaten, Vizier Ay, Lady Kiya, General Horemheb, General Nakhtmin... Suffice it to say that almost every character in the book was based on an historical personage.

While the main historical events are accurate, such as Ay’s rise to power, Akhenaten’s obsession with Aten, the dream of Amarna, and Nefertiti’s unparalleled influence at court, liberties were taken with personalities, names and minor historical events. For instance, no one can be certain how Mutnodjmet felt about her sister’s vision of an Egypt without the Amun Priests, but in an image of her found in Amarna she is standing off to one side, her arms down while everyone else is enthusiastically embracing Aten. In a period where art attempted to portray reality for the first time, I found this significant. And while Nefertiti did have six daughters with Akhenaten, she never, so far as we know, produced twins the way she did in the novel. Historical uncertainties revolve as well around the questions of whether Amunhotep the Younger ever had a co-regency with his father, or whether Nefertiti ever did rule on her own. These are questions that can only be answered by conjecture, and I went with what seemed most plausible given the historical evidence.

Today, some of these questions could be answered by a firm identification of the Amarna mummies. Although much of Kiya’s funerary equipment was found in her son Tutankhamun’s tomb, little to nothing remains that was Akhenaten’s or Nefertiti’s. How old was Nefertiti when she died? What killed Tiye? Dr. Joann Fletcher contends that a cache of mummies found in tomb KV55 are the bodies of Nefertiti and the Dowager Queen. If so, they were stunning beauties even in death.

Some historians mentioned that Nefertiti had been captivedand and prison in a Northern Palace in the end of Akhenaten' reign, Is that true?

No. This belief was predicated upon an inscription on the Northern Palace which archaeologists believed read “Nefertiti.” The name had been removed from the palace while Nefertiti was still alive and replaced with the name of Princess Meritaten. If Princess Meritaten had truly removed her mother’s name from the palace, it would indeed seem to indicate a daughter taking the place of her mother. However, the inscription was later discovered to actually read “Kiya.” After Kiya’s death Nefertiti and her daughter set out to erase the existence of Nefertiti’s only real rival. Unfortunately, many internet sites haven’t bothered to update their information, so the erroneous theory of Nefertiti having been banished persists.

Is it true that Akhenaten had Marfan’s syndrome?

There is absolutely no anthropological or DNA evidence to suggest this was the case. Those who believe that Akhenaten had Marfan Syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by unusually long limbs and curvature of the spine, do so simply because some of his statues show a man with long arms and an elongated head. It is essential to remember, however, that Akhenaten purposefully changed the artistic style which all of his predecessors had used, creating a new style known today as Amarna Art. For as many images as there are of Akhenaten with a long, leonine face and feminine hips, there are just as many images from when he was a child displaying none of these startling features. During the Amarna period, all of Akhenaten’s family begins to appear with long arms, elongated heads and large hips, even Nefertiti. It is highly unlikely that the entire royal family had this connective tissue disorder, particularly in light of Nefertiti’s bust which resides in Berlin and shows none of the characteristics that those with Marfan Syndrome typically display.

Nefertiti ever ruled as Pharaoh, Is that true?

This depends on which Egyptologist you ask and what camp they fall into. Amunhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten, and when Nefertiti became co-regent with her husband she changed her name to Ankhkheperura-Neferneferuaten. It is not beyond the limits of plausibility, then, to imagine that Nefertiti later became Pharaoh Ankhkheperura-Smenkhkara, who ruled briefly after Akhenaten’s death. A beautiful gold figurine in Tutankhamun’s tomb depicts a female Pharaoh (not a queen) walking atop an ebony leopard. Egyptologists have dated the figure back to Akhenaten’s reign, which means there is only one possibility of who this feminine ruler of Egypt could be: Nefertiti. There is also evidence of foreign correspondence during Pharaoh Ankhkheperura-Smenkhkara’s time that points to Egypt’s Pharaoh being Nefertiti. If you want more information about this, I suggest checking out the work of Dr. Joann Fletcher, who wrote The Search for Nefertiti: The True Story of an Amazing Discovery and whose work was featured on the Discovery Channel. Dr. Fletcher stirred up quite the controversy with this book and her announcement that she discovered the body of Nefertiti.

Dating as far back as 1500 BCE, palaces were more comfortable than you or I might imagine given that it was 3,500 years ago. The wealthy shaved with copper razors and bathrooms were discovered in Amarna equipped with toilet seats that matched the limestone sink bowls. Royal women regularly applied face cream, eye shadow and lipstick. Women had elaborate containers for their makeup, and very wealthy women carried handheld mirrors made of polished brass the way women carry purses today.

If Nefertiti ruled on her own, then who would have been her queen?

Just as Hatshepsut made herself Pharaoh and her daughter queen, Nefertiti would have named her eldest daughter Meritaten as her consort. Surprising though this may seem, rulers of Egypt searched for balance, the feminine with the masculine, and in religious ceremonies it was necessary to have a female part which Pharaoh, as a “man,” couldn’t play.

We see many source one of them at Michelle Moran online

Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV)

During Akhenaten's rule, from 1353 to 1336 BCE, He moved the capital city of Egypt from Thebes to Amarna, then known as Akhetaten, a city he constructed on what had been just a piece of desert. There he created a new religion and new temples. His influence lived on beyond his death.


You may know that throughout their history ancient Egyptians worshiped many gods and goddesses. In some ways these deities were a lot like people: they had arguments, could get married and had children. Together, they were believed to control everything from health to rainfall.

Everyday Egyptians kept images of the gods and goddesses in their homes and communicated with them. Making offerings,celebrating religious holidays and preparing complex fun eralswere all a part of Egyptians’ constant interactions with their royal gods.

Akhenaten was born into this world of many gods. At that time, Amun Re was the most important of Egypt’s gods. Amun Re was a mysterious god with many abilities, but he appeared to the people as the sun. A powerful group of priests served Amun-Re.

When Akhenaten became king in 1353 BC he began to make changes. He declared that there was only one god who could be worshiped –the Aten – and he declared that as pharaoh he was the only person who could communicate with this god.

Why did Akhenaten make this huge change?Some people think he wanted to get rid ofthe powerful priests of Amun Re, whose power could challenge the pharaohs. Other people think that Akhenaten was totally dedicated to the Aten, and that he was one of the first people in history to express unique and personal thoughts on spirituality.

The Aten literally meant “the disk of the sun.” Akhenaten searched for a place to build a new city for the Aten. He found it in a spot where the sun appeared to rise from an eastern valley and spread its light over abroad piece of land in front of the Nile river.The new city was named Akhetaten, “horizon of the Aten.” Today, historians call the city Amarna.

The pharaoh lived at Amarna with his family. As a result,all the government officials, artists, builders and families who served the king moved there, too. This was a great huge move.

As the population grew, the city stretched north and south along the Nile, which was the source of water for the wells the people of Amarna dug into the desert. Official royal buildings and the temples of the Aten were concentrated in the heart of the city. Suburbs, where most people lived, surrounded the center of the city.

Cartouche of AkhenatenSurely, daily life went on for the Egyptian people. They farmed, fished and built as they had for hundred of years. The king, his wives and children went about their daily lives, but the family had a new significance in the new religion. Instead of the many statues of gods the people had been used to seeing when worshiping in the past, the king’s family were now Egyptians visible link to god. In sculpture, at important events, and even traveling around the city, the pharaoh family were not only royalty or representatives of gods on earth: they were the people’s only link to god. They also took the place of myths of the gods and their families.

During the rule of Akhenaten’s father, Amenhotep III, the numerous gods of ancient Egypt were worshiped widely, but Amun Re was held above the rest. The priests of Amun Re became so powerful and wealthy that they could even challenge the pharaoh. This wasn’t good for the royal family, and within his reign Amenhotep III made steps to raise other gods up and control the power of the priests. One of the gods he called attention to was the Aten, a solar god who was represented by an image of the sun in the sky.

About the year 1350 BCE, new rules were given by Pharaoh Akhenaten to the people of Egypt, and they came as a shock. The one and only god would be the Aten, which had no human or animal form. It was simply the sun in the sky. Only Akhenaten could know the Aten’s wishes, or ask the Aten for help.

When Akhenaten closed all the gods’ temples, including those of Amun Re, and announced that he was moving to a new city, priests suddenly lost all their power.

When the traditional gods were outlawed, everyday Egyptians lost their connection to the spiritual world. Akhenaten proclaimed that he and his family were the only ones capable of communicating with the Aten. If people wanted to communicate with the god, they would have to look to the pharaoh.

Of course, some people weren’t happy about all these changes, but they had also been trained for generations to think that the pharaoh was a god on Earth. They didn’t challenge his changes.

You may hear people claim that the religion of the Aten was monotheistic, which means a religion with only one god. Certainly the religion of the Aten was much closer to monotheism than the religion of the many gods Egyptian shad worshiped before. But there is one problem: The people had to worship Akhenaten, his wife Nefertiti and their family as the representatives of the Aten. The royal family would, in turn, worship the Aten. This isn’t strictly monotheism as we know it today.

Think of it - what if you had to worship the president,who could then worship god. The Egyptians were used to thinking of their leaders as godly, so it wasn’t as strange to them as it would be to you - but they still remembered the old ways.

In about 1346 BC Akhenaten chose Amarna as the site of a new city to be built for the Aten. All the people whose jobs depended on the pharaoh, from sculptors to builders to government officials, left their homes in Thebes and traveled to Amarna to begin a new life under one god. There, temples were built without roofs, so that the sun could be seen in the sky.

Did Akhenaten really believe in the Aten, or did he just use the Aten to upset Egypt’s power structure and reshape it the way he wanted? Signs show that Akhenaten really did believe in his spiritual connection to the Aten. He composed songs and poems in honor of the god, and sometimes neglected Egypt’s well-being and safety in his pursuit of building the perfect home for the Aten. But all of Akhenaten’s devotion to the Aten couldn’t erase what the people of Egypt had known for hundreds of years.

Soon after Akhenaten’s death, Amarna was abandoned and the capital cities moved to Memphis and Thebes,where the Aten was turned back into just one of many minor gods.

Akhenaten set out to build the Aten a city so amazing, rich and beautiful that it put memories of old gods out of his subjects’ minds. He wanted to create a place worthy of his god, and one that would impress his people with the Aten’s magnificence.

Because the pharaoh was so wealthy, he could hire as many painters, sculptors and artisans as he wanted - and it seems that a virtual army of artists lived in Amarna during the city’s short time. Akhenaten himself developed a new style for showing the human body in art. Instead of the very stiff and straight traditional figures, his were long and curved, with large hips and thin arms. Some people have even wondered if Akhenaten was born with an illness that gave him a strange figure - but now it is believed he was shown in this way as part of the new artistic style.

Family portraits of the royal family, Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their daughters, also changed at this time. In addition to formal, ceremonial pictures, the family was shown playingand relaxing together, holding each other and enjoying age under the rays of the Aten.

On this block from a temple relief, Akhenaten (ack-en-AH-ten), recognizable by his elongated features, holds a duck up toward Aten, the solar disk. Akhenaten believed that light was the only divine power in the universe and thus was the source and sustainer of all creation. The solar disk was the means through which this power came into the world. Akhenaten’s god was not portrayed in human or animal form but through the symbol of the solar disk with rays ending in small human hands, one of which holds an ankh, symbol of life, toward the king’s nose. The sun-disk symbol is a large-scale hieroglyph meaning ‘light”

On this block from a temple relief, Akhenaten (ack-en-AH-ten), recognizable by his elongated features, holds a duck up toward Aten, the solar disk. Akhenaten believed that light was the only divine power in the universe and thus was the source and sustainer of all creation. The solar disk was the means through which this power came into the world. Akhenaten’s god was not portrayed in human or animal form but through the symbol of the solar disk with rays ending in small human hands, one of which holds an ankh, symbol of life, toward the king’s nose. The sun-disk symbol is a large-scale hieroglyph meaning ‘light”

On this block from a temple relief, Akhenaten (ack-en-AH-ten), recognizable by his elongated features, holds a duck up toward Aten, the solar disk. Akhenaten believed that light was the only divine power in the universe and thus was the source and sustainer of all creation. The solar disk was the means through which this power came into the world. Akhenaten’s god was not portrayed in human or animal form but through the symbol of the solar disk with rays ending in small human hands, one of which holds an ankh, symbol of life, toward the king’s nose. The sun-disk symbol is a large-scale hieroglyph meaning ‘light”

With one hand Akhenaten holds the duck firmly by its wings and with the other he wrings its neck before offering it to his god. Although early depictions of Akhenaten often appear strangely exaggerated, his sculptors later in his reign attempted a more naturalistic style, emphasizing transitory motion and a sense of space and atmosphere. Akhenaten’s hands here are grasping and straining to hold on to the struggling duck. Such a scene, capturing a moment in a sacrifice being made by a king, would never have been attempted in another period. Akhenaten’s right hand, however, is twisted so that all five fingers can be seen, a pose that conforms to the Egyptian convention of presenting each part of the body as completely as possible.

The type of relief used here is called sunk relief. Instead of cutting the background away and leaving the figures raised above the surface of the stone (as in raised relief), the artist has cut the outlines of the figures into the surface. Sunk relief in general appears mostly on the outside of buildings, where the outlines are emphasized by shadows cast by Egypt’s brilliant sunlight, but during the Amarna period almost all relief was executed in this technique.

Khafra (2558 - 2532 B.C.)

King Khafra, another son of king Khufu, succeeded his brother to the throne and built his mortuary complex at Giza Egypt.

Under the 4th Dynasty, Egyptian civilization reached a peak in its development, and this high level was generally maintained in the 5th and 6th dynasties The splendor of the engineering feats of the pyramids was approximated in every other field of endeavor, including architecture, sculpture, paintmg navigation, the industrial arts and sciences, and astronomy; Memphite astronomers first created a solar calendar based on a year of 365 days- Old Kingdom physicians also displayed a remarkable knowledge of physiology, surgery, the circulatory system of the body, and antiseptics.

The pyramid of king Khafra:

The pharaoh called Khafre (pyramid 143.50 meters high = 3157.000000 twelfths of a cubit = 3157 months) lived 263 years and 1 month.

The pyramids of Khafra and Menkara were built on a different plan inside to that of Khûfû. Khafra's had two entrances, both to the north, one from the platform before the pyramid, the other fifty feet above the ground. king Menkara's still preserves the remains of its casing of red granite. The entrance passage descends at an angle of twenty-six degrees, and soon runs into the rock.

The first chamber is decorated with panels sculptured in the stone, and was closed at the further end by three portcullises of granite. The second chamber appears to be unfinished, but this was a trap to deceive the spoilers. A passage cut in the floor, and carefully hidden, gave access to a lower chamber. There lay the mummy in a sarcophagus of sculptured basalt. The sarcophagus was still perfect at the beginning of this century. Removed thence by Colonel Howard Vyse, it foundered on the Spanish coast with the ship which was bearing it to England.

The Sphinx:

The Sphinx: a huge, limestone statue that stands about 66 feet [20 meters] high and stretches 240 feet [73 meters]. It is actually called the “Great Sphinx,” and it wears an ancient Egyptian royal headdress. The Great Sphinx lies near the tomb/pyramid of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh King Khafre. Historians believe King Khafra had the monument built and its face is actually a portrait of the king.

How to travel to the pyramid of Khafra?

If you are in a direct holidays to Egypt vacation, and then you are in Cairo you can travel there bye any Taxi, car or by Metro. But if you are in Luxor or Aswan Egypt you can go to Giza where the pyramid found by air or by train.

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Ramses II (1279-1212 B.C)

King Ramses II (or Ramses 2), the great king in the world, ruled for 67 years during the 13th Century BC. He was a pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. When the young Ramses came to power, 1300 years had already passed since the time of the Fourth Dynasty, the dynasty which is traditionally associated with the famous pyramids and Sphinx of the Giza (although much evidence suggests that they were constructed many years before even the first historical dynasty).

If, today, In the life of technology, at the end of the twentieth century, one were to ask the average person to name an Egyptian pharaoh, the reply would probably be, "King Tutankhamon." This, of course, is due to the highly unusual discover by one of the great scholars, Howard Carter in 1922 of the child-kings small but almost intact tomb.

Tutankhamon died at age 17. Outside of the contents of king Tut's tomb, little is known of his reign and his life, and he is not considered to be a pharaoh of major importance. Returning to our (name that pharaoh) question, if the average person were to be able to name a second pharaoh, it would almost surely be Ramses II. Even if little importance is currently placed on knowledge of ancient history, legends of this great ruler still live on.

Many may remember him from Shellys famous, if historically inaccurate, poem, "Ozymandias." Some associate him with "Pharaoh" from the Biblical story of the Exodus. A series of best selling novels has recently been written based on the life of Ramses II. Finally, the astute history student will know that Ramses II, popularly known as "Ramses the Great," built more temples, statues and obelisks than any other pharaoh of Ancient Egypt and in the world.

Cartouche of pharaoh Ramses IICartouche of pharaoh Ramses II

Ramses place in Ancient Egyptian History (the period of the power)

In an effort to handle the 3000 years of Egyptian history which includes 170 or so pharaohs, Egyptologists have divided Ancient Egypt into Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom, with intermediate periods in between. The system of dynasties dates back to the third century BC, when the High Priest of Heliopolis, Manetho, defined the basic Egyptian chronology still in use today.

The pharaohs of the New Kingdom were kings of a massive nation, and many of their tremendous works, temples and fortresses are still extant today as testament. It was a power period for Egypt.

Ramses came to the throne approximately 46 years after the death of Tutankhamon who didn't present any service to Egypt except his remained tomb. Tutankhamons reign marked the end of what is known as the Amarna Interlude, a sixteen-year period of revolution in Ancient Egypt when the religious fanatic Akhenaten mandated that his "personal god," Aten, be the only one worshiped. Akhenaten moved the capital out into a desert city that was abandoned after the traditional religion and government were restored.

After Tutankhamon, a series of three military leaders and government officials in turn assumed the throne. Their primary role was to reestablish the ancient ways and to assure that no foreign countries took advantage of the temporary disorganization. The last of these, Ramses I, was the first of the Nineteenth Dynasty, and the first of the so-called Ramesside Period. He was the grandfather of king Ramses II.

Historically, the New Kingdom pharaohs seem to have experienced more attacks by foreign invaders than their predecessors. The Libyans, the Syrians, the Nubians and the Hittites alternately invaded the borders of Egypt. The most famous war that Ramses undertook, and indeed one of the most famous in ancient times was the Battle of Kadesh.

In Year 4 of King Ramses reign, the Pharaoh was forewarned of an enormous coalition of forces being headed by the Hittites. In the spring of Year 5 Ramses gathered an army of 20,000 men and headed north to contend with the force. The Egyptian forces were divided into four divisions: Amon, Re, Ptah and Seth. The Hittite army was much larger, 37,000 men, plus 2500 chariots, and due to faulty intelligence that King Ramses received, had the element of surprise.

The Hittites power attacked, their chariots cut off Ramses from his men, and confusion reigned among the Egyptians. The young Ramses beseeched Amon for help. According to the inscriptions, Amon himself incarnated in Ramses and the Pharaoh began to rally his troops, single-handedly slaying many Hittites himself.

In fact, Peace was eventually offered by the Hittite king. Today, we know from a variety of sources that the Battle of Kadesh was a historical event. However, it is also clear that the event was considered to be symbolic and didactic, and was included at many temples. It was even used in the education of the youth.

4 years historians have supposed that Merneptah, Ramses son and successor, was the (Pharaoh) referred to in the Bible. This was due to the fact that one of the only known related references to the issue was found on his (Victory) stele: Israel is listed as one of the conquered lands. Currently, however, scholars favor Ramses II as the Biblical (Pharaoh) due to chronological considerations. It is hoped that evidence will be discover in KV5 that will shed additional light on the matter.

Ramses II loved and Focused in building cities and other monuments. He established new capital in Delta called Pi-Ramesses. It is build over the stones of Avaris (the past capital of the Hyksos enemy).

Maybe Bows like those which used in Kadesh battle.


King Khufu, named Cheops by the Greeks. His father is king Sneferu and his mother queen Hetepheres. Khufu had 15 daughters and nine sons, one of them became the successor. He reigned 23 years, some scholars say that he reigned for a long time. The first discover for Khufu reign was in the late of the nineteenth century. The new rediscover made by Dr. Hawas.

Khufu sank his chops into the after life by, during his reign of 2589-2566 BC, commanding the construction of his pyramid. Slaves living in purpose-made towns nearby quarried limestone into two million stone blocks, most weighing around 500 lbs, some much heavier.

They slid these on parallel logs covered with Nile River mud which move by the power of the floods, then up long ramps winding around the rising pyramids. Many slaves service the pharaoh and suffered bone damage and died young. Construction took twenty years, working all year but especially in the summer when the Nile River water flood and people power couldn’t work on fields, anyway. Some people believe that there is a secret or a treasure in the pyramid of Khufu.

The Great Pyramid of Khufu

The great pyramid of Giza

From Aswan, down the Nile 600 miles on reed came granite for Khufu’s burial chamber. In time, the emperor’s cedar and hemp, ten-oared funeral barge, carved to resemble reed boats used to transport on the Nile, carried him to the pyramid while the king's body remained cooled with palm leaves.

Then his body was carried to the funeral in a boat-shaped sledge proceeded by many mourners to show the society’s great sadness at his death (excepting, no doubt, the dead slaves), king Khufu was buried (no mummification—those techniques developed later) with a collection of food, furniture collection, servants and other objects he might need in an after life.

Finally, the people buried his boat (sun boats) in the sand beside the pyramid to allow him to travel and have their journey by this boats to the next world in style.

Inside the great pyramid of Khufu

Inside the great pyramid of Khufu

This pyramid of king Khufu, containing more stone than all the later European cathedrals combined, stood there, already an ancient relic, for Abraham to see when he came, starving, to Egypt. By the time of his visit, Egyptians still buried their dead in pyramids. The pyramids of Giza is the symbol of the Egypt power, and there is more secrets and discovers inside the pyramid.

If you are visit Egypt or think to make Egypt pyramid tours and arrived at (Cairo), you can get any car (Taxi) or by Metro. But if you are in Luxor city or Aswan city you can access to [Giza Egypt] where the pyramid found by air or by train. And finally there is a question and the answer be in the comments. Is there any pottery tools found inside the great pyramid?

The Great Pyramid of Khufu:

The pyramid of Khufu at Giza is constructed of limestone blocks of varying size. The lowest row of blocks have outer faces of 1.47 by 1.47 meters. Where the entire block is visible the depth is one and one half times the height. A limestone block of this size would weigh approximately 8,445 kg. (9.3 tons). The uppermost remaining row has blocks less than half a meter tall and weighing approximately 22.2 kg (48.9 lbs). Estimates of the total number
of blocks vary greatly. Anthony P. Sakovich has reviewed the evidence and built a computer model of the pyramid. He calculates the total number of blocks at close to 4,000,000.1. The base area of the pyramid is 5.3067 hectares (13.113 acres).

There are small sockets marking the corners of the pyramid. Since their discovery by William Flinders Petrie, these sockets have been used by all credible researchers as the reference points for measuring the lengths of the base lines of the pyramid. Petrie surveyed these lines in 1881 and a second survey was done by J. H. Cole in 1925. The two surveys agree closely with one another. The table below uses Cole’s measurements of the length and the azimuth of each line.

The unit of measure that it is expected that the Egyptians used for this and other architectural projects was the royal cubit. Numerous cubit sticks have been found in Egypt. Petrie reports an average length of 20.632 ± 0.004" (524.05 mm.). The royal cubit was divided into seven palms and each palm was divided into four digits. There were thus twenty-eight digits in a royal cubit.

Using this unit of measure, it would appear that the target dimensions of the pyramid were base lines of 440 cubits and a height of 280 cubits. The average of the lengths of the four base lines is 439.58 cubits. Alternatively, if we assume the average length of the base lines to be precisely 440 cubits, the length of the cubit inferred would be 523.55 mm., only one-half millimeter shorter than the average reported by Petrie.

The height is a projection since there are around 30’ missing from the top of the pyramid. The projected height is 280.48 cubits (146.845 meters). Interior dimensions are also convenient integers when converted to cubits. The longest interior passage is 90 cubits long and the burial chamber is 20x10x11 cubits.

The Egyptians calculated the slope of the side of a pyramid by a unit that they called the seked. It is clear from the Rhine Mathematical Papyrus example that follows that the Egyptians considered the seked a unit of length, not a ratio. The seked is the horizontal distance that must be offset for every vertical cubit of elevation in order to maintain the intended slope of the pyramid. The seked is calculated as one-half of the base divided by the height of the pyramid. It is the same as what we would call the cotangent. The example that follows is the translation of Problem 56 from the Rhine Mathematical Papyrus.

Who built the great pyramid:

By Aliens:

The pyramids are so accurately aligned with the points of the compass that only aliens could have achieved this all those thousands of years ago. The angle of the slope of the sides is so precise only aliens could achieve this. The blocks are so heavy and the pyramid so tall only aliens could achieve this. In the period 2500 BC man did not have the tools or knowledge necessary to build the pyramids, so only aliens could have done it. How the aliens built the pyramids is not known, but they would have employed the use of advanced construction equipment.

By men:

Never underestimate the ingenuity of man. We are today so used to using machinery to carry out virtually all our major construction work that we sometimes forget that machinery, in terms of historical events, is a very new development, its only been around a couple of hundred years or so. Mankind managed very well without it for many thousands of years. We have long forgotten the techniques that were used in the building of the pyramids, but this doesn't mean that we are unable to work out how it was done.

I see them as beehive in hustle

In order to try and establish who built the pyramids we have to examine the evidence that we have. We have only the pyramids themselves, the excavation sites where the blocks were quarried from, and historical accounts.

Lets start with the excavation site. If like me, you have been there, you will know that it looks pretty much like any other quarry you might see today, except there is obviously no machinery. At the quarry face there are blocks cut into the rock but not yet cut away. There are rough hewn blocks scattered around ready for transporting and on-site finishing. The entire quarry shows obvious signs of systematic development of cutting blocks out from the face and transporting them from site. The rough hewn free standing blocks show the scars of repeated chisel blows where they were chiseled out of the rock face.
There is nothing in the manner of these blocks that is anything other than old fashioned quarry work using a mallet and chisel. Nowhere is there any sign of advanced technology having been employed, just the opposite. The blocks were hewn out of the rock-face by manual labour, the signs are unmistakable. The chisels used were made of copper, the hardest metal then available, but even they were only good for about 100 blows before blunting, even though limestone is relatively soft and easy to work compared to hard rock such as granite. As the chisels were blunted they were exchanged for re-sharpened ones, and the process was repeated with a team of blacksmiths constantly re-sharpening and tempering the chisels.

The Egyptians, The Pyramids Builders

How were the blocks transported to the pyramids? By man power. The vast majority of the blocks weighed in the region of 2.5 tons and were transported on wooden sledges. They could of course have chosen any size for the blocks, but this must have been the optimum size, any bigger would probably have slowed them down. A team of men with ropes could drag the sledge across the clay floor, and this could be eased with a little water tipped in front of the runners helping the sledge to slide easier. It is estimated that it may have taken 10 years just to build the ramp from the quarry to the pyramids. In this manner all the blocks could be transported to the site of the pyramid without presenting any insurmountable challenges. So far no alien technology required, it could all be done by well organised teams of men, and a great deal of manual labour. During the time of the annual flooding of the Nile the stone blocks could have been floated to the site of the pyramids on rafts, making the task a lot easier.

The work force was was not one of slaves , the Egyptians didn't need slaves. The Nile supplied a very fertile land where farming was relatively easy and food abundant. This civilisation had time on its hands, no wonder they were such great mathematicians, astronomers and architects. The work force was primarily made up of farmers, recruited nationwide for a period ranging from a few months to a few years, and they served their time for their king, much like serving National Service today in the armed forces. A total of 20,000 to 30,000 workers would have been needed for the task, ranging from unskilled hauliers, semi-skilled quarry men, skilled quarry men, masons who finished the blocks, men who placed the blocks, officials and caterers. A village was purpose built to house them all and they were well fed and cared for in return for their work. The remains of the village can still be seen today.

Now for making the pyramids themselves. About 2,550 B.C., King Khufu, the second pharaoh of the fourth dynasty, commissioned the building of his tomb at Giza. Some Egyptologists believe it took somewhere in the region of 80 years to construct the pyramid. Having man-hauled the blocks to the site of the pyramid the obvious problem now is how to stack them up. There are a number of ways this may have been achieved, all of which require a ramp, or a system of ramps, as the only method available to the ancient Egyptians was man-power, and they had that in abundance.

The actual method of ramps used is not known with any certainty, but it most likely started with a single ramp by which means the blocks could be hauled into position. The blocks were laid down in layers, each successive layer being a little smaller in area than the one below it to give the pyramid its shape. As the blocks are layed onto a level surface, the same height as the ramp, no lifting was required, only hauling of the sledges. Removing the blocks from the sledge may have involved no more than dragging the block off the sledge. The entire pyramid could have been built using this simple system without a single block actually having to be lifted off the ground! No alien technology required. Very smart people these Egyptians.

As each successive layer was laid the ramp would need be heightened, and lengthened so as not to be too steep. Eventually this method would reach a limit where the size and construction of the ramp would be nearly as complex as the pyramid. The easiest way around this problem is to curve the ramp around the pyramid as the pyramid increased in height.

Finally, all that remained was the placing of the top stone, followed by the placing and fitting of the smooth white blocks. As the facing stones were placed so the ramp could be removed as they worked their way back down. The pyramid required a certain amount of interior design and construction for the burial chambers, and this was no easy task. The blocks that protected the burial chamber were 50 ton blocks of granite. Even with the huge teams of men at their disposal and a system of ropes and overseers guiding them, it would have been a difficult and dangerous task. There are still marks visible on the blocks and in the interior of the pyramid that were used to guide the blocks into position. Difficult yes, impossible no.

It was men that built the pyramids, make no mistake. Do not underestimate the intelligence of the ancient Egyptians or the trained manpower that was at their disposal. It was a colossal effort of team work taking 80 years to complete.

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Tutankhamun (1334-1325 B.C.)

King Tutankhamun was the twelfth pharaoh of Egypt during the Eighteenth dynasty of the New Kingdom (the golden age of ancient Egypt and the age of the power). The exact dates of his reign are still disputed today. The dates range from 1361 B.C.E.1 to 1333 B.C.E.2 He became Pharaoh at a very young age. Many historians believe he was between eight and ten years old when he was crowned. Even though he was quite young at that time, he accomplished much in the Egyptian Empire. As early as the third year of his rule, he lifted a ban that prevented the Egyptian people from worshiping the religion of Amun. In accordance with this, he also had the Amun temples reopened and rebuilt. King Tut is personally credited for the construction of two large temples in Karnak and Luxor. With Tutankhamun being very young during these decisions, it is generally understood that he was most likely acting on influences from his advisors, Ay and Horemheb.

While planning the construction of the temples, Tutankhamun married a young lady, believed to be his step-sister, by the name of Ankhesenpaaten. He and Ankhesenpaaten had two daughters who were both still born. After ruling until he was nearing his 20s, He died suddenly. Being that his death took place over 3000 years ago, it is impossible to tell with pure certainty how it happened. There are, however, a number of clues in his tomb and elsewhere in Egypt that give insight into the events that led up to his death. The king did not die by any accident or illness—he was murdered.

In fact, much more is known about Tutankhamun’s death than his life. After burial in his tomb, the king remained undisturbed for well over 3000 years. In stark difference to other Pharaoh tombs, His tomb was not opened and looted, which allowed perfect preservation up to February 16, 1923, when Howard Carter presented the great Service to the science by broke the last seal to the tomb.

Dr. Carter had been working for Lord Carnarvon, a wealthy Egyptian artifact collector. After finding several clues about the existence of King Tutankhamun, Carter began to search for his tomb. Carter started his search for this little-known pharaoh in 1915. After working for over 6 years trying to find the tomb, Lord Carnavron became frustrated and told Carter to find the tomb in one more season or he would stop the funding of Carter’s excavations. Luckily Carter succeeded, and in late 1922 found the entrance to Tutankhamun’s tomb.

While going throughout the tomb, Dr. Carter meticulously cataloged and photographed everything. Many of the items in The king’s tomb were priceless artifacts. There were countless items and many precious gems. The history evidence of the items far exceeded the monetary value of them. There were ancient Egyptian items that were over 3000 years old. Among some of the more historically significant items were the very large number of writings that were on the walls. These hieroglyphics mainly showed the king Tut in the after life. The Egyptians believed that their pharaohs would become gods after their death and go to live with the king of the gods, Ra. Of even greater interest were some hieroglyphics that revealed more about the king.

For example, among the writing is one which says that he was “a king’s son”. Although not specific as to which king, this is some evidence as to the parentage of King Tut. It helps to give perspective as to how Tutankhamun became the king. Many historians speculate that he was the son of King Amenhotep III due to the time of Amenhotep’s reign and also some pictures that appear to depict him on the burial chamber walls. His mother is still a mystery to many. No images were found that would depict who his mother could be. Amenhotep’s wife during his rule was the very popular Tiye. If she was Tut’s mother, she would have been mentioned considerably inside his tomb because during her reign as the Queen of Egypt, she was very popular among her people. Much is speculated to his parentage due to the fact that not much information survived during this time period. His father was definitely a pharaoh, but that could range from Amenhotep III to his son, Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten). Right next to the various hieroglyphs displayed along the walls of his tomb was a discover of the greatest archeological discoveries ever to be found, his coffin.

His coffin was found completely intact and unopened. It was the first time that a coffin of a Pharaoh had been found unopened. Tutankhamun’s coffin was actually made up of many different layers. The first layer was a 9 foot long quartzite sarcophagus. This cover weighed over a ton and was meant to help protect the contents of the coffin. The second layer was an image of the king with colored stones. Inside this second coffin was a third that was made out of a red linen shroud and covered with flowers. The flowers, although far dead and dry, indicate that the king was buried during the spring time when the flowers would have been available. The final coffin of the king was even better than the first three. It was made from pure 22-caret gold weighing almost 300 pounds carved into a likeness of The king. Inside that coffin was his perfectly mummified corpse.

Tomb of Tutankhamun

Tomb of Tutankhamun

By the great discover x-ray: After the corpse was examined by professionals, an x-ray was taken. This was done in order to help figure out how Tut had died. He was quite young at the time of his death and Carter was quite interested in the cause of it. The results of that helped put some of the mystery to rest: King Tut had been murdered. There was evidence that he suffered a blow to the back of his head. After reviewing the results, a trauma specialist said, “The blow was to a protected area at the back of the head which [one doesn’t] injure in an accident, someone had to sneak up from behind.”10 The testimony of the trauma specialist gives a clear indication that the injury could not have happened from his falling on the ground. It was not accident like some historians had begun to believe. The injury had to have been from a specific blow to his head coming from someone behind him. Another thing that the test of the rays pointed out was a thickening of a specific bone in his cranium which only occurs after a build-up of blood in the brain: a subdural hematoma.

Although that had answered many questions about the death of The king, it has recently come under scrutiny due to a Computed Tomographic scan of his body that occurred on March 8, 2005. A CT scan is a machine that takes thousands of ray x of a single object and combines them to give a three-dimensional view of the entire bone structure. Tut’s scan was done in conjunction with 5 other Egyptian mummies done by the Bowers Museum in Santa Ana, California. The scans were performed to help with an exhibit being made in the museum about how mummies died. Tut’s CT scan showed no evidence of the head trauma, but it highlighted that The knig had a fractured thighbone. Although the scan does not show evidence for the previous trial results, it does show that The king still most likely died from an injury. The only conclusion that can be drawn from looking at the results from both the ray and CT scans is that he died from an unnatural cause. Current-day technology power simply adds more mystery to the cause of his death.

King Tut DNA:

The 2 year study was the first to apply advanced radiological and genetic testing techniques on mummies, in the first place believed impossible ascribable their age and the techniques applied to carry on the bodies. The team of Egyptian and extraneous scientists chaired by Zahi Hawass, secretary general of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, distilled DNA from the bones of 11 ancient Egyptian mummies and published their determinations in the Journal of the American Medical Association on Wed.

“This is the 1st time someone did something alike this with pharaohnic DNA,” tells Carsten Pusch assort professor at the Institute of Human Genetics (at the University of Tübingen in Germany), who acted on the study. “We have displayed it's conceivable to work with the DNA of mummies and at once we have afforded a new door. Behindhand the door, there’s a new cosmos awaiting for us.”

Tutankhamun wearing his blue crown:

The blue crown of king Tut

This head is a fragment from a statue group that represented the god Amun, seated on a throne, and Tutankhamun (TOOT-ahnk-ah-mun) standing or kneeling in front of him, king and god facing in the same direction. The king’s figure was considerably smaller than that of the god, indicating his subordinate status in the presence of the deity. All that remains of Amun is his right hand, which touches the back of the king’s crown in a gesture that signifies Tutankhamun’s investiture as king. During coronation rituals various types of crowns were put on the king’s head. The type represented here-probably a leather helmet with metal disks sewn onto it was generally painted blue, hence the Egyptologist’s term “blue crown” The ancient name was khepresh.

The statue group this fragment comes from must have been commissioned when Egypt returned to the worship of the traditional gods after the death of Akhenaten. Tutankhamun, whose name during the Amarna era had been TutankhatenÑthe living (ankh) image (tut) of Aten must have been educated in the sole worship of the Aten (sun disk, light), but he headed the return to orthodoxy. Since representations of deities had been widely destroyed during the Amarna period, it became necessary to dedicate a host of new deity statues in the temples of Egypt when the country returned to its old gods. The extremely hard “indurated” limestone was among the favorite materials for such statues.

Statue groups showing a king together with gods had been created since the Old Kingdom (visitors to the Museum can also see the group of King Sahure, acc. no. 18.2.4), and formal groups relating to the pharaoh’s coronation were dedicated at Karnak by Queen Hatshepsut and other kings of the Eighteenth Dynasty. The Metropolitan’s head of Tutankhamun with the hand of Amun is special because of the intimacy with which the subject is treated. The face of the king expresses a touching youthful earnestness, and the hand of the god is raised toward his crown with gentle care. Images as charged with sentiment as this were possible only under the influence of the art of the Amarna period.

The tomb Tutankhamun (KV62) at the valley of the kings. The tourist can travel in Luxor tour to visit the valley of the kings by plan or by train.

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