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The Thirteenth Dynasty

The Thirteenth Dynasty classified in the first top of the second intermediate period, It was the first dynasty of this period with other four dynasties [14th Dynasty, 15th Dynasty, 16th Dynasty and 17th Dynasty]. Some historians joined it with the fourteenth dynasty, and the other put it as a separated dynasty in the beginning of the second intermediate period. In any way this dynasty start about 1790 BCE and end in about 1650 BCE. The thirteenth contained about seventy pharaohs ruled for short reigns, some of them are known for us and the others unknown. From those known kings of that dynasty:

- Amenemhet V also known as (Ameny Intef IV), ruled for short reign about 1770 BCE, his tomb unknown.

- Other known king is Hor Auyibre, ruled also for short time about 1770 BCE, his tomb at Dahshur.

- Sobekhotep II also known as Amenmehet VI, he ruled in about 1760 and his tomb in Dahshur as some scholars suggests.

- King Khendjer Userkare ruled about in 1747 BCE, his Pyramid in the south of Sakkara.

This dynasty was an anarchy and disorder period. The central government was weak and maybe there are internal struggles. The study of this dynasty is very difficult because the remaining monuments of that period is very less, and the most information, which came to us from this dynasty, was by a small fragmented inscriptions.

During the thirteenth dynasty some Asians was settled in the eastern side of the delta. In the same time the Nubian places were abandoned while the trading movement was grew at Avaris (Tell el-Dabba).