Horemhab 1321–1293

Akhenaten, Who moved the political capital of the country from Akhetaten to Memphis, had 6 daughters from his wife Nefertiti. Horemhab followed Ay to the throne. Some historians suggest that Horemhab himself order with kill the Hittite prince, and other believed that he also kill king Tut himself. Horemhab was a military general and from the first men of king Ay. He may be still beside the old man (Ay) to die and then he claim to the throne.

Horemheb with AmunHoremhab with Amun

He comes the obliteration of the remained of the Amarna. With that uncivil work, some believed that the mummy of Akhenaten and the mummies of his family also, were destroyed. King Horemheb usurped the majority of the monuments of Tutankhamen. Horemhab also insult the pharaohs of Amarna, and by lie Horemhab dated his own rule to the beginning of Akhenaten reign, Tutankhamen. He perhaps want to effacement Ay, Tut and Akhenaten ages from the page of the history. He married from a certain woman called Mutnodjmet, some believed to be the younger sister of Nefertiti.

Rameses I follow Horemhab after his death. Rameses I was the vizier of Horemhab. He was an old commander in army. Rameses I begin a new dynasty in the Egyptian history, that is the nineteenth dynasty (1293-1185BC).

Cartouche of HoremhebCartouche of Horemhab

Horemhab 1321–1293 want to confirm his rule to the throne, so he constructed two tombs for himself, one when he was a small nobleman which founded at Saqqara, and the other tomb founded in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes which have number KV57, as the pharaoh. His Wife was Queen Mutnedjmet, perhaps(the younger sister of Nefertiti). Horemhab didn't have son in his life from Mutnedjmet as successor. Also he didn't have any children from Amenia (his first wife). Amenia died before her wife assumed power of the Egypt throne.

In fact, the tomb of is beautiful tomb, but it didn't opened for many years to any one except the researchers.

Haremhab was a royal scribe and generalissimo of the army under King Tutankhamun. He continued to serve during the reign of Aya, and then became king himself. This statue was made before he ascended the throne. That Haremhab chose to be represented as a scribe indicates the importance of literacy in Egypt; it also puts Haremhab in an age-old tradition of depicting a great official as a “wise man” that is, a scribe.

The great man sits slightly hunched over, and his eyes look downward, although not as far down as the papyrus scroll on which he is composing a hymn to the god Thoth, patron of scribes. The ink palette is on Haremhab’s left thigh, and his right hand now missing once held the brush. The hieroglyphs on the scroll face the writer, and one can see how Egyptians unrolled a papyrus with the left hand while reading and writing. As a badge of office Haremhab has a strap slung over his left shoulder from which hang two miniature writing kits, one on the chest, the other on the back of the shoulder. To proclaim loyalty to the newly reinstalled traditional religion, Haremhab has a figure of the god Amun incised on his forearm, perhaps indicating a tattoo.

The scribe wears a long tunic of fine linen that reveals rolls of fat below his chest, which testify to maturity and the high status of the official. Pleats have been carefully pressed into the edges of the shirt that cover the arms like sleeves. Haremhab has wrapped a long, wide pleated sash around the lower part of his body. The sash has been tied at the waist and the long ends have been looped back to tuck under the tie. The shawl also has been carefully pleated. The figure’s buttocks, thighs, and knees are covered with the linear pleat pattern, which contrasts with the smooth, round forms of the upper torso, arms, and the lower portion of the legs. A similar contrast is achieved between the delicately modeled facial features and the richly patterned wig.

The triangular outline of the figure is opened up at the arms and elbows, and the statue’s overall symmetry is broken by the one-sided diagonal of the lower right leg. By such means the sculptor managed to imbue a basically quiescent pose with tension and vitality. Similar results were obtained in the head and face by contrasting the youthfully rounded facial features and heavy-lidded eyes of a thinker with an angular, almost harshly cut jaw and chin. Despite its elegance and beauty, this is undoubtedly the image of a man of action to be reckoned with.

The horseshoe-shaped base forms an integral part of the whole composition, elevating the figure and at the same time contrasting its rich detail with the base’s simple outline and smooth surface. The base is inscribed with additional religious texts: prayers to Thoth, Sakhmet, Ptah Sokar, and Osiris. The latter two gods are connected with death and rebirth, and it has been suggested that the statue was originally created for Haremhab’s civilian tomb at Saqqara. However, a temple may also well have been the original location for this scribe statue of a great Egyptian.


Smenkhkare (1336–1334BC)

Akhenaten (who had Akhetaten as his political capital) in his life had 6 daughters by his Wife, the famous queen Nefertiti, but no sons. There is some doubts about his successor who likely was the pharaoh Smenkhare who appears briefly, though some historias suggest that this was a throne name of Nefertiti (as we will explain later), ruling after the death of her husband. The other historians believe that one of the mummies of Akhenaten is actually the mummy of Smenkhare. With that, may be Smenkhare was a half-brother of Akhenaten or the younger brother of him.

Smenkhkare or Smenkhare reign after king Akhenaten and before the reign of Tutankhamun. Most of the historians suggested that Smenkhkare rule for few months or one year at most. Other Egyptologists suggested that he rule more than 10 years. In any way his period considered an mysterious or abstruse period. Some scholars see that Smenkhkare was an other name of Nefertiti. The cartouche of Smenkhkare appeared in a piece of gold, but that piece was stolen when the tomb opened.

Some historians see that Smenkhkare was the son of Amenhotep III or Akhenaten. But he was born three years before the reign of Akhenaten began, add to that the known about Akhenaten' parentage was just six daughters but no male, so that we can't say that he was the son of Akhenaten, the evidences refer to he was the son of Amenhotep III, and that is just suggests, but the fact is unknown to the historians.

Few years after the reign of Smenkhare, Tutankhaten access the throne.

Dynasty 18 (18th Dynasty (c.1550-1292 BC))

The Dynasty 18 occured in the New Kingdom age. Dynasty 18 Considered by historians to be the most important period in the history of ancient Egypt. King Ahmose was the first pharaoh of the Dynasty 18. He succeeded in saved Egypt and defeating the Hyksos. On view will be an extraordinary gilded ebony statue of Amunhotep III, whose reign was distinguished by the opulence and grandeur of the objects and buildings that it produced, a small jar decorated with a group of cattle and women; also a kneeling statue of Senenmut (official), the first chief advisor to the great female pharaoh the queen Hatshepsut.

The Egyptian Empire came to the height in the age of the Eighteenth Dynasty, this dynasty was without peer in the ancient history. Egypt had never achieved such wealth and influence of the 18th dynasty's Pharaohs, and it would never again reach that rate of international influence. King Ahmos had driven the enemy (Hyksos) out of Lower Egypt and united Egypt under Theban rulers. King Amenhotep I Tuthmosis I, Tuthmosis II and Hatshepsut had successively orchestrated the internal secure and stability that allowed Egypt to flex its muscles both southward into Nubia and northward into Canaan and Syria. During the reigns of the next three Pharaohs—the mighty father-songrandson dynasties, Tuthmosis III, Amenhotep II, and Tuthmosis IV—the Egyptian realm surged to its greatest expanse, from far south in Nubian in Africa northward to the River Euphrates in the hinterlands of western side of Asia.

After the building of the empire, about 158 years later, Dynasty 18 entered a period of decline, a period of implosion, slow decline at first, and step by step moved toward the ultimate collapse. After the unexpected death of king Tuthmosis IV, who ruled from 8 to 10 years only, two kings Amenhotep III and Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) allowed Egyptian control in Asia to decreased, and Egypt lost the orient domains one by one. So the scholars doubt if the Eighteenth Dynasty start military campaign into Syria and Canaan was during the rule of Tuthmosis IV. There are a certain evidence, from the last years of the reign of Amenhotep III, which found in Amarna that Egyptian Syrian and Canaanite princes in the Levant were very concerned about revolt in the region and were crying out for at least a small level of military support from their once-formidable Nilotic great lords, which never achieved. Add to that, Hittite attack and violent was rising against the kingdom of Mesopotamian of Mittani, whose rulers had been, since the reign of Tuthmosis IV (the brother of Pharaoh). The fact which remains that Egypt at this period either could not, or would not, respond with military assistance to the rapidly deteriorating situation in its now-former Asian provinces.

Pharaohs of the Eighteenth Dynasty:

Ahmose I 1570–1546

Amenhotep I 1525–1504

Tuthmosis I 1524–1518

Tuthmosis II 1518–1504

Tuthmosis III 1504–1450

Hatshepsut† 1498–1483

Amenhotep II 1453–1419

Tuthmosis IV 1419–1386

Amenhotep III 1386–1349

Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) 1350–1334

Smenkhkare 1336–1334

Tutankhamun 1334–1325

Ay 1325–1321

Horemheb 1321–1293

References:

Steven Collins, How Low Did the Once-Great Egyptian Eighteenth Dynasty Sink?
Grimal.N., A History of Egypt, Oxford 1992