Pharaoh Neferkare

There are no contemporary memorials from the Pharaoh Neferkare. Many rulers have had this name and the sound components building up the name are really common. Archaeologists know him just from the 2 king lists from Áaka's tomb at Saqqara and the dedication in the papyrus from Turin called the Royal Canon of Turin. In the 3rd list of substance - the Abydos king list from a wall in the temple of pharaoh Seti I from the nineteenth dynasty, he does not subsist and nor does his immediate heir. This temple is from 1200 years afterward the 2nd dynasty and so are the additional two lists. If the deletion of him and his heir has to do with a custom in Abydos (with hostility to the northern Memphis region during the 2nd dynasty) we do not know.

In both the Saqqara and Turin lists he has the location between Sened and Neferkaseker and in Manteho's list he is in as is place under the Greek-formed call Nepherkheres.

At the close of the Old Kingdom about dynasty 6 his name comes to light on many rulers. This appearances that he and extra more or less nameless kings from the same time, was far from blanked out by the generations that abide by them. Picture at top right appearances the cartouche with Neferkare's name as it looks in the Sakkara list. It arrests the signs KA with the aroused arms (intending soul) and Nefer (a sign maybe showing a belly and a windpipe) intending beautiful and the sun (or really solar god) Re.

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Pepi II

Pepi II of the 6th Dynasty [2300-2181 B.C.]. Last well-attested pharaoh of the Old Kingdom, with an exceptionally long rule estimated diversely between sixty and 90 years. A long reign appears confirmed by attest that the king was a child once he came to the throne: there are pictures of the king as a child, including a well-known figurine demoing him on the lap of his mother. The throne-name Neferkare was applied by other kings later in Egyptian history: hence references to the throne-name alone can just be dated to this rule if there is certification (for example, when an aim inscribed with the name is lately Old Kingdom type).

Pepi II as a boy

The 5th king of the 6th Dynasty was the son of King Pepi I and Queen Ankhnesmeryre II. This heir of Nemtyemzaf was only 6 years old when he concerned the throne. His mother assisted as his regent. Since a child Pepi encountered word that a dwarf had been appropriated. Pepi sent detailed directions on the care of the dwarf , including a anticipate of a reward to the official that brought the dwarf safely to him. The letter accented the importance of twenty-four hour care to hold the dwarf safe from harm. Pepi based trading despatches to Punt and Nubia. Reportedly, Pepi reigned Egypt for ninety-four years. His married woman* were Queens Nit, Wedjebten, Ankhnespepi and Ipuit. His pyramid was constructed in Sakkara.

King Pepi II was the son of King Pepi I and Ankhenesmerire I. He was the stepbrother of his predecessor, Merenre I. He was got married to Neith, his stepsister and to Iput II, a daughter of his brother. He was besides married to a woman called Udjbeten. His heir, Merenre II, is maybe the son Pepi II had with Neith.

When his stepbrother died, evidently without any male heirs, Pepi II was yet a child. Agreeing to the Turin King-list, he reigned for over ninety years, which looks to be affirmed by Manetho, who recorded ninety-four years. This would cause Pepi II the longest reigning king of Ancient Egypt. Some doubt has yet been caducous on this high number, and some researchers think that it was the consequence of a miss-reading of sixty-four.

The existent power primitively of his reign was accommodated by his mother and her brother, Djau. An alabaster statue demoes Ankhenesmerire I with the young but purple Pepi II on her lap, passably evocative of Isis with the young Horus. Another statue, demoes Pepi II as a naked kid.

Pepi II's long rule is branded by a gradual decline of the exchange government. His predecessors' policy to attempt and consolidate the attitude of the king was beginning to fail, and this would become more conspicuous after Pepi II's death. It is frequently thought that the cause of this was the long rule of Pepi II: the aging king was no longer capable to rule himself, which would have expanded the power of his central disposal and of the provincial governors. On the other hand, it must be marked that Pepi's funerary memorial was constructed and decorated in a often poorer way than his predecessors', which may argue a decline in welfare generally during his rule. This decline is likely to have been the result of the lower annual alluvion of the Nile: with a bluer annual alluvion, crops and crops were no more abundant and agriculture, the backbone of Egyptian economy, started to decay.

Pepi II's foreign policy also is marked by some troubles. In the starting of his reign, a pygmy bestowed by the governor of Elephantine, could delectation the young king. Later, many expedition leaders would find their deaths though campaigning in Nubia. The commercial kinship with Byblos appear to have carried on, but many other commercial kinships with foreign countries were chipped.

Pepi II constructed his funerary complex in Sakkara South, near the monument of Shepseskaf of the fourth Dynasty, at a kilometre length from his father's and brother's. His 3 wives were buried in littler pyramids following to his own.

The 5th king of the sixth Dynasty was the son of King Pepi I and Queen Ankhnesmeryre II. This heir of Nemtyemzaf was just six years old when he concerned the throne. His mother assisted as his regent. As a child Pepi accepted word that a dwarf had been appropriated.

Pepi sent elaborate instructions on the care of the dwarf, including a anticipate of a reward to the prescribed that bestowed the dwarf safely to him. The letter accented the importance of twenty-four hour care to hold on the dwarf safe from damage.

Pepi based trading expeditions to Punt and Nubia. Reportedly, Pepi reigned Egypt for ninety-four years. His married woman were Queens Nit, Wedjebten, Ankhnespepi and Ipuit. His pyramid was constructed in Sakkara

King Pepi II carried on foreign relations of his predecessors and asseverated diplomatic and commercial coitions with Byblos in Syria. Campaigns of "pacification" entered Nubia and he as well continued the long accomplished mining practices in Sinai and elsewhere.

He had a act of queens, most of them related him, and one of his boys, Merenre II, who may have came through him, maybe for just one year.

His pyramid and mortuary composite was constructed at South Saqqara and the pyramid's call was [The Established and Living Pyramid].

It was constructed and decorated in a often poorer mode then his predecessors and power and wealth of eminent officials banquet all over Egypt dragging hold away from the capital Memphis. Disposal of the country became hard and he appointive one vizier to each one for Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt to regain hold, but vainly.

On his exceptionally long rule (ninety-four years according to Manetho and sixty-four by some scholars) foreign relations such military expeditions into Nubia, debilitated the state treasury and some foreign relations were even broken away. The central disposal for taxation was brushed off by governors approximately the country and towards the end of his rule, the authorities of Egypt simply broke up.

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Pepi I

King Pepi I was the son of [Teti] and Queen [Ipwet]. He was the 3rd king of the sixth Dynasty. An advanced leader, Pepi took the loathsome military role. He attacked the Bedouins in Sinai and southern Palestine. He also led a military campaign in Nubia to establish forts and trading posts. Pepi's pyramid was so telling that its name, Mennefermare, was given to the field. The capital, primitively named Hiku-Ptah, was renamed Nennefer, so Menfi. The Greeks later transcribed it as Memphis. Pepi constructed temples at Tanis, Bubastis, Abydos, Dendera and Coptos. Copper statues of Pepi were discovered in Hierakonpolis, and are on exhibit in the Cairo Museum. His first wife melted soon after she was discovered in a harem plat to overturn the throne. Afterwards he married 2 daughters of a nomarch and named them both Ankhnesmeryre. Among them was the mother of Pepi II.

Pepi I

Pharaoh Pepi I was the son of Teti and a woman called Iput I, who is accepted by some to have been a daughter of Unas. He had many wives. With Ankhenesmerire I he got a son, Pepi II. With Ankhenesmerire II, a girl of her name-sake, he had a boy, Merenre I and a girl, Neith. His marriage to these 2 sisters may have been a political move as they were the daughters of a noble from Abydos, called Khui.

The twenty years concorded to him in the Turin King-list is very low and maybe the result of a error of the composer or scribe of the king-list, or of a bad refurbishment by more recent scientists. The highest commemorated year is the year after the twenty-fifth counting. If the countings took place every 2 years, the year after the twenty-fifth counting would be the fiftieth year.

The inner policy of Pepi I was a continuance of his father's tries to consolidate the power of the central government. This is attested not just by his marriage to two daughters of a noble from Abydos, but also by the extensive constructing policy of this king. Memorials were raised in Bubastis, Abydos, Elephantine and Dendara. In Dendara, his retention would be conserved by a now lost statue that shows him doting Hathor, as shown in a few alleviations in the temple from the Greek-Roman period.

On his reign, there were the most traditional military expedition to the Sinai and into Nubia. He also coordinated some expeditions to the Wadi Hammamat. The commercial relationship with the Near East was exposed by an intrusion of a peregrine people into Palestine.

His funerary composite, named Men-nefer, was constructed at Saqqara South, a few kilometers to the South of his father's. It was constructed at some distance from the temple of Ptah of Memphis. Its name would be changed to this temple from the eighteenth Dynasty on, and from there on would be enforced to the intact city of Memphis.

Pepi I was the 2d ruler of Egypt's sixth Dynasty, a period that would finally fall into the abyss of the First arbitrate Period. Pepi I was this pharaoh's birthing name, though we may also find him listed as Pepy I, Piopi I, Pipi and the Greek Phiops. His enthrone name was Mery-re, intending [Beloved of Re], while he actually used the throne name, Nefersahor during the first half of his reign, later altering it to Mery-re. He reigned Egypt from around 2332 through 2283 BC. He likely came up the throne as an early age, and seems to have ruled for some fifty years (or leastwise forty years).

It is completely possible that Pepi I didn't follow his father to the enthrone. Kings Lists let in the name of a Pharaoh Userkara between that of King Teti and King Pepi I, and it may be that this king arrogated the enthrone for a brusk time.

He was credibly the son of Teti and his queen, Iput I. Whilst he may have had leastways six, the wives of Pepi I that we cognise of were Ankhnesmerire I and II (Sometimes as well determined as Meryre-ankh-nas), who were the girls of an influential official (believably governor of the area) at Abydos called Khui. Pepi I made his brother-in-law, we think a son of Khui named Djau, vizier. A woman called Were-Imtes could have been his 1st wife but some Egyptologists have evoked that she might not have been his wife in the least.. It may have been Were-Imtes who planned a cabal against her husband from the harem, but she was found out and penalised. This occurred in the 21 cattle census, or about year forty-two of the king's convention. An confederate in this plot could have been Rewer, a vizier of Pepi I who's name has been effaced from his tomb. However, Callender has indicated that the confederacy wasn't by one of Pepi's queens, but was alternatively a plot by maybe the mother of the mysterious King Userkare. Essentially, there is considerable confusedness between the explanations catered by assorted Egyptologists around this confederacy.

Evidently, he married Ankhnesmerire I belated in his reign, perhaps yet after the harem confederacy, and may have married her little sister after the first sister's death, just this is by no means absolved. His sons, Merenre (by his wife Ankhnesmerire I) and Pepi II (by Ankhnesmerire II) would rule Egypt through the end of the 6th Dynasty. He as well had a daughter by Ankhnesmerire I called Neith, who would afterward marry her stepbrother Pepi II. It appears that Pepi II was born either only before or presently after Pepi I's death. Pepi I could have had a number of additional wives, letting in a Nebuunet (Nebwenet) and Inenek-Inti, who's little pyramids are close his at South Sakkara. An dedication has besides been found documenting another queen, maybe from Upper Egypt, called Nedjeftet. Other family appendages, though we are not so sure of their relationships, credibly included a woman called Meretites, and another woman called Ankhesenpepi (or Ankhnesmerire) III. Very lately, (June 2000) we are assured by Dr. Zahi Hawass of a different pyramid that has been discovered by the French squad close Pepi I's that looks to be that of Ankhnesmerire II, while in this report she is mentioned to as Ankhes-en Pepi.

In the right: Ankhnesmerire II accommodates the infant King Pepi II

Leastways 4 statues of the king have endured, including the earliest acknowledged life size carving in metal. This state flog from the temple of Hierakonpolis (Nikhen) in upper Egypt and is attained of copper. Found with it was as well a copper statue of his young boy and future king, Merenre. Additional statues include a belittled green statue of the king believably making oblations to deities, and a belittled alabaster statue of Pepi I accommodating the royal baffled flail and sceptre "crook".

We acknowledge that the rule of Pepi saw the rising charm and wealth of nobles away the royal court, a circumstance that perhaps had often to do with a correct into the First arbitrate Period. These noblemen constructed fine tombs for themselves and frequently boasted of favors resulting from friendship to Pepi I.

In the left: Copper statue of Pharaoh Pepi I and Merenre

We besides know that Pepi I broached a number of trading and other despatches, often for fine rock to be used in his many constructing casts. One inscription discovered at the alabaster pits at Hatnub is dated to year fifty of his rule. It refers to the twenty-fifth cattle count, which was a biyearly event. He was likewise active at the Wadi Maghara turquoise and copper pits in the Sinai, the greywacke and siltstone pits of Wadi Hammamat, where his first Sed Festival is referred. We think he also defended diplomatic and commercial coitions with Byblos and Ebla.

He may have too sent despatches to the mines of Sinai and as far-off as Palestine. The dispatch into Palestine was chaired by a person called Weni the Welder (Uni?) and affected landing flocks from the sea. A exclusive dedication is the only document of the 5 campaigns led below Pepi I Palestine, the Land of the Sand Dwellers as the Egyptians named the areas east of Egypt.

His majesty based me to lead this army five times to chasten the land of the Sand Dwellers, every time they arose, with these flocks. I acted so that his majesty praised me for it. Assured that there were arises among these foreigners at the 'Nose-of-the-Gazelle's-head' I baffled in ships, collectively with these flocks. I put to land at the back of the height of the chain northward of the land of the Sand-Dwellers, whilst (the other) half of this regular army were travelling by ground. I turned back, I blockaded all of them and slew every arise amongst them.

Of the autobiography of King Weni the Elder

Pepi I believably did considerable constructing but little of it remains, intrinsically. Some of his constructing projects were likely comprised into later projects, but he did leave many dedications. Building projects of Pepi I include the remains of a chapel (Hwt-ka) at Bubastis, as well as projects at Elephantine and Abydos. He may have accomplished work at Dendara too. He built his pyramid at South Sakkara and the Pyramid Text autographed on the pyramid surrounds were the 1st to be discovered by Egyptologists, though not the first commemorated in a pyramid. This pyramid was called Mn-nfr, implying (Pepi is) constituted and good". The corruptness of this call by classical authors offered our modern name for Egypt's ancient capital, Memphis. His palace could have been identical close his pyramid in South Sakkara.

Pepi is additional attested to by edicts found at Dahshure (today in Berlin) and Coptos. He was referred in life history* of Weni in his tomb at Abydos, Djaw from his grave at Abydos, Ibi in his grave at Deir el-Gabrawi, Meryankhptahmeryre in his tomb at Giza, Qar in hist tomb at Edfu and the life on a tomb at Sakkara by an unidentified person.

The son of Teti and Queen Ipwet was the 3rd pharaoh of the sixth Dynasty. An advanced leader, Pepi took the loathsome military role. He aggressed the Bedouins in Sinai and southerly Palestine. He also led a agitate in Nubia to establish forts and trading posts.

Pepi's pyramid was so telling that its name, Mennefermare, inclined to the region. The capital, primitively called Hiku-Ptah, was renamed Nennefer, so Menfi. The Greeks later transcribed it as Memphis. Pepi constructed temples at Abydos, Dendera, Tanis, Bubastis and Coptos.

Pepi's copper statues were discovered in Hierakonpolis, and are on show in the Cairo Museum. His 1st wife melted soon after she was discovered in a harem plot to override the throne. After he married 2 daughters of a nomarch and called them both Ankhnesmeryre. Among them was the mother of King Pepi II.

Among the names of King Pepi I was "The Ka soul of Re is powerful" and contemplates back on the traditional solar cult from Heliopolis that was tardily freeing its grip as the most powerful demonstration of the Egyptian amused religion.

When he come up the throne he had the call of his predecessor king Userkare distant wherever conceivable, arguing a feud in the royal house.

Many constructing projects of his are acknowledged from Bubastis in the delta to Aswan in the south, but brief of it remains. Some of it was maybe incorporated into later projects attained by other rulers, but he did leave many dedications from his time telling around his deeds on his three decade dominate.

He coordinated expeditions to Sinai and Nubia and has left stone carving in Wadi Hammamat, a 120 kilometre long route between the River Nile valley and the Red Sea.

Among the most noteworthy discoveries in Egyptian history was built in Hierakonpolis in Upper Egypt. It was a big copper statue of Pepi I and his petty son Merenre.

He constructed his pyramid composite at south Sakkara four kms south of Djoser's composite and a couple of hundred meters from the pyramid of 5th dynasty king Djedkare Isesi. On the nineteenth dynasty it was bushelled and text from this affair tell that it was in good shape at that time.

When former Egyptologists entered the subterraneous rooms from the northerly side entrance in the late 1800s, they discovered pyramid texts incised in the walls, circularising light over the builder of the memorial and more. The valley temple and causeway are still to be and investigated, but the rests of them look to be very few. The mortuary composite was most a duplicate of Teti's and the pyramid was of 6 dynasty standard sizing: a 79 meter square with a height of fifty-three.

It besides had a name of its possess; [The accomplished and Beautiful Pyramid]. Nowadays this knockout is a twelve-meter high break.

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