The Twentieth Dynasty

The Twentieth Dynasty was founded by a pharaoh named Setnakht. Again, it is unclear what his relation to the previous royal family was, and how he became pharaoh if he was not a legitimate descendant of that line. We cannot rule out a usurpation by force. He reigned only a few years, less than five, and then the long dreary series of Ramessides begins. The first, Rameses III, fared well; he reigned some thirty years, and did his best to emulate his “Great” namesake in courage and deeds. Most Egyptologists look upon Rameses as the last great pharaoh of Egypt.

He repelled invasions by the Libyans, and he faced the so-called “Sea Peoples” probably a confederation of displaced tribes from Asia Minor. These people devastated Cyprus and Syria and destroyed the Hittite empire on their way to Egypt, but in Rameses III they met their match. Thousands of their warriors were captured or killed; the walls of Rameses’s funerary temple at Medinet Habu, near the Valley, depict huge heaps of severed hands being piled before Rameses by his victorious generals. However, the greatest threat to the king was domestic; a plot to assassinate him was hatched in his own harem, an indication of how far the prestige of Pharaoh was falling.

His son, Rameses IV, undertook a massive building program, but died after a short reign, and was succeeded by a series of rulers named Rameses—V through VIII—whose reigns were even less noteworthy, none exceeding seven years long and producing no monuments or achievements of significance except their Valley tombs. These kings were probably not a series of fathers and sons, but rather brothers and cousins who took the name upon their coronation. Rameses IX brought some stability to the throne, with a nineteen year reign, and a tomb in the Valley full of strange and beautiful funerary texts, some of which are not known outside its walls.

The prestige of the pharaoh decreased throughout this period, particularly in comparison with the priesthood of Amun, which continued to grow richer and more influential, until finally, during the twenty-seven year reign of Rameses XI, the last pharaoh of the dynasty, the high priest of Amun, Amenhotep, was able to have himself represented on the same scale as the pharaoh.

Soon thereafter, the country seems to have collapsed into civil war. In Upper Egypt, Amenhotep’s successor as high priest, Herihor, had his name inscribed in a cartouche, as a pharaoh would, while Lower Egypt was taken over by Nesbanebdjed, a native of Mendes in the Delta, whom Manetho called Smendes, perhaps fusing the name of his city with his personal name which must have been quite unmanageable in Greek. Some Egyptologists believe that Nesbanebdjed and Herihor were compatriots, and together overthrew Rameses XI, dividing the country between themselves. And so at last, the magnificent New Kingdom came to an end.

Although most of Ramesses III reign was prosperous and the king made many gifts to the temples, toward the end there were problems. First there was a strike because monthly food rations were overdue. More serious was the discovery that several of his wives and officials in his harem were in a plot to kill him. As punishment, some of the plotters were allowed to kill themselves, while others lived, but got there noses and ears off.

The next eight pharohs were all called Ramesses, and under them Egypt lost the what was left of it's empire and became increasingly unstable. This is list of the the dynasty pharaohs:

Setnakhte 1185–1182
Ramesses III 1182–1151
Ramesses IV 1151–1145
Ramesses V 1145–1141
Ramesses VI 1141–1133
Ramesses VII 1133–1126
Ramesses VIII 1133–1126
Ramesses IX 1126–1108
Ramesses X 1108–1098
Ramesses XI 1098–1070

The Twentieth Dynasty events:

- Internal weakening

- Libyan and Nubia resurgence

- Invasion of the Sea Peoples

- In the Twentieth Dynasty Rameses III (1195-1164 B.C.) pursued the retreating "Sea Peoples," whom he had repulsed in their attempted invasion of the Nile Delta, along the Mediterranean coast into Syria. He seems to have made no attempt, however, to recapture the coastal towns. Gaza alone, so far as his records show, fell into his hands. Before the end of his reign Egypt was compelled to abandon the whole of her Asiatic dependencies.

- Rameses III lead the war against the Sea Peoples 1180-1173. His temple at Medinat Habu

- Steady decay in Egyptian military power increasing use of foreign mercenaries difficult shift to iron age.

- Infiltration of Egypt by Libyans, Nubians, Semitic and Aegean Peoples

- Great Iron Age Migration of peoples c. 1230-1100. Conquest of Anatolia (= Trojan war, fall of Hittites). Syria Palestine (= Philistines, Israelites). Italy (= Sicily, Sardina, Etruscans). Greece (= Collapse of Mycenaeans, Greek Dark Ages). Two of the Great Epics of World History = Homer and OT conquests.

- Decline in trade, military and social upheaval, general dissaray. Loss of Syrian, Nubia and Oases domains. Egypt survives as Kingdom.

- Decline in absolute authority of Pharaoh, Revolt vs. Pharaoh by Herihor establishing 21st Dyansty c. 108

- The Twentieth Dynasty began by looking very favorably on this god, as is shown in the name of its founder Setnakt, "Set is Mighty." There is also considerable evidence that the set cult was favored among artisans of the time (see Romer's Ancient Lives, Henry Holt, 1984, and if you've got as copy of Stephen Quirk's Ancient Egyptian Religion check out the beautiful Stella of Aapehty -- probably the most beautiful surviving example of Setian art).

- By the end of the Twentieth Dynasty, as the funerary cult of Osiris became the dominate force in popular Egyptian religion,more and more, Set as the murderer of Osiris became the Evil One. In fact by the Twenty Sixth dynasty it was a common practice to disfigure any representations of Set. He became -- for all practical purposes the Christian devil. Some scholars have even derived the name Satan from Set-Hen, a cult title meaning the Majesty of Set, but I am dubious of this particular derivation.

- Soon after the Twentieth Dynasty in Egypt, the Egyptians lost control over Nubia and the land was plunged into a dark age. Around 900 B.C., evidence of a Nubian monarchy begins to emerge…By 770 B.C., these kings were extending their rule to the North. Soon …Egypt [was under] Nubian control. The Kings now wore the crown of the double cobra – signifying the unity of both Egypt and Nubia.

After the end of the 20th Dynasty Egypt was divided between the High Preist at Thebes and the Vizier of lower Egypt, Smendes who ruled from Tanis. And as usual, at times when Egypt was in turmoil conquerors came.

The Nineteenth Dynasty

After the death of Horemheb, the vizier of the former king, took the throne and adopt new name to himself "Rameses I", his old name is "Pramesse". The historians called his age with the nineteenth dynasty. The new pharaoh Rameses I was an old man, so his reign was very short and uncompleted. Although his short reign, Ramses I has the honor of establishment the nineteenth dynasty.

Seti I reign after the death of his father Rameses I, his age was building age beacause he reign for along time. Seti I was devoted to the God Osiris and he built especial temple to Osiris in Abydos. In that temple the scholars found complete list of all the pharaohs from the age of Narmer to the nineteenth dynasty, but the pharaohs of the period of Amarna city was not recorded in that list. The tomb of Seti I in the valley of the kings, It is one of the most beautiful tombs in ancient Egypt. His mummy is still one of the wonderful mummies found in Egypt.

Rameses II was succeeded by Seti I, his reign was very long, about 75 years. Ramses II or Ramses the great, was the most famous king in the world. He had wide spread famous in the past and nowadays because he was built more buildings like temples and tombs, also he reached with the borders of the Egyptian empire to Asia minor. He was a great warrior and he put the first treaty in the world between Egypt and the Hittite Empire. More about Ramses II.

After the death of Ramses I, his son Merneptah reign for short time, about 10 years only. Seti II (1199–1193 BC) succeed his father Merneptah, in his short age another king Amenmesse appears and asked the throne, perhaps Amenmesse reign in the same time with Seti II. Some historians suggested that Amenmesse divided Egypt with Seti II. In any way Siptah came to the throne after Amenmesse and Seti II, he maybe the son of Seti II, other scholars said that Siptah was the son of Amenmesse. Siptah had a bad deformity in his legs and he died resulted that. After the death of Siptah, the queen Tawosret, maybe the wife of Seti II, came to the throne.

The end of nineteenth dynasty was unknown for the scholars, maybe Tawosret was the last pharaoh of that dynasty, but the fact was lost from the history court. After the nineteenth dynasty, the throne turned to Setnakht, the first king in the dynasty 20, but the relations between Setnakht and the end of the nineteenth dynasty was unknown.

Horemhab 1321–1293

Akhenaten, Who moved the political capital of the country from Akhetaten to Memphis, had 6 daughters from his wife Nefertiti. Horemhab followed Ay to the throne. Some historians suggest that Horemhab himself order with kill the Hittite prince, and other believed that he also kill king Tut himself. Horemhab was a military general and from the first men of king Ay. He may be still beside the old man (Ay) to die and then he claim to the throne.

Horemheb with AmunHoremhab with Amun

He comes the obliteration of the remained of the Amarna. With that uncivil work, some believed that the mummy of Akhenaten and the mummies of his family also, were destroyed. King Horemheb usurped the majority of the monuments of Tutankhamen. Horemhab also insult the pharaohs of Amarna, and by lie Horemhab dated his own rule to the beginning of Akhenaten reign, Tutankhamen. He perhaps want to effacement Ay, Tut and Akhenaten ages from the page of the history. He married from a certain woman called Mutnodjmet, some believed to be the younger sister of Nefertiti.

Rameses I follow Horemhab after his death. Rameses I was the vizier of Horemhab. He was an old commander in army. Rameses I begin a new dynasty in the Egyptian history, that is the nineteenth dynasty (1293-1185BC).

Cartouche of HoremhebCartouche of Horemhab

Horemhab 1321–1293 want to confirm his rule to the throne, so he constructed two tombs for himself, one when he was a small nobleman which founded at Saqqara, and the other tomb founded in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes which have number KV57, as the pharaoh. His Wife was Queen Mutnedjmet, perhaps(the younger sister of Nefertiti). Horemhab didn't have son in his life from Mutnedjmet as successor. Also he didn't have any children from Amenia (his first wife). Amenia died before her wife assumed power of the Egypt throne.

In fact, the tomb of is beautiful tomb, but it didn't opened for many years to any one except the researchers.

Haremhab was a royal scribe and generalissimo of the army under King Tutankhamun. He continued to serve during the reign of Aya, and then became king himself. This statue was made before he ascended the throne. That Haremhab chose to be represented as a scribe indicates the importance of literacy in Egypt; it also puts Haremhab in an age-old tradition of depicting a great official as a “wise man” that is, a scribe.

The great man sits slightly hunched over, and his eyes look downward, although not as far down as the papyrus scroll on which he is composing a hymn to the god Thoth, patron of scribes. The ink palette is on Haremhab’s left thigh, and his right hand now missing once held the brush. The hieroglyphs on the scroll face the writer, and one can see how Egyptians unrolled a papyrus with the left hand while reading and writing. As a badge of office Haremhab has a strap slung over his left shoulder from which hang two miniature writing kits, one on the chest, the other on the back of the shoulder. To proclaim loyalty to the newly reinstalled traditional religion, Haremhab has a figure of the god Amun incised on his forearm, perhaps indicating a tattoo.

The scribe wears a long tunic of fine linen that reveals rolls of fat below his chest, which testify to maturity and the high status of the official. Pleats have been carefully pressed into the edges of the shirt that cover the arms like sleeves. Haremhab has wrapped a long, wide pleated sash around the lower part of his body. The sash has been tied at the waist and the long ends have been looped back to tuck under the tie. The shawl also has been carefully pleated. The figure’s buttocks, thighs, and knees are covered with the linear pleat pattern, which contrasts with the smooth, round forms of the upper torso, arms, and the lower portion of the legs. A similar contrast is achieved between the delicately modeled facial features and the richly patterned wig.

The triangular outline of the figure is opened up at the arms and elbows, and the statue’s overall symmetry is broken by the one-sided diagonal of the lower right leg. By such means the sculptor managed to imbue a basically quiescent pose with tension and vitality. Similar results were obtained in the head and face by contrasting the youthfully rounded facial features and heavy-lidded eyes of a thinker with an angular, almost harshly cut jaw and chin. Despite its elegance and beauty, this is undoubtedly the image of a man of action to be reckoned with.

The horseshoe-shaped base forms an integral part of the whole composition, elevating the figure and at the same time contrasting its rich detail with the base’s simple outline and smooth surface. The base is inscribed with additional religious texts: prayers to Thoth, Sakhmet, Ptah Sokar, and Osiris. The latter two gods are connected with death and rebirth, and it has been suggested that the statue was originally created for Haremhab’s civilian tomb at Saqqara. However, a temple may also well have been the original location for this scribe statue of a great Egyptian.


Smenkhkare (1336–1334BC)

Akhenaten (who had Akhetaten as his political capital) in his life had 6 daughters by his Wife, the famous queen Nefertiti, but no sons. There is some doubts about his successor who likely was the pharaoh Smenkhare who appears briefly, though some historias suggest that this was a throne name of Nefertiti (as we will explain later), ruling after the death of her husband. The other historians believe that one of the mummies of Akhenaten is actually the mummy of Smenkhare. With that, may be Smenkhare was a half-brother of Akhenaten or the younger brother of him.

Smenkhkare or Smenkhare reign after king Akhenaten and before the reign of Tutankhamun. Most of the historians suggested that Smenkhkare rule for few months or one year at most. Other Egyptologists suggested that he rule more than 10 years. In any way his period considered an mysterious or abstruse period. Some scholars see that Smenkhkare was an other name of Nefertiti. The cartouche of Smenkhkare appeared in a piece of gold, but that piece was stolen when the tomb opened.

Some historians see that Smenkhkare was the son of Amenhotep III or Akhenaten. But he was born three years before the reign of Akhenaten began, add to that the known about Akhenaten' parentage was just six daughters but no male, so that we can't say that he was the son of Akhenaten, the evidences refer to he was the son of Amenhotep III, and that is just suggests, but the fact is unknown to the historians.

Few years after the reign of Smenkhare, Tutankhaten access the throne.

Dynasty 18 (18th Dynasty (c.1550-1292 BC))

The Dynasty 18 occured in the New Kingdom age. Dynasty 18 Considered by historians to be the most important period in the history of ancient Egypt. King Ahmose was the first pharaoh of the Dynasty 18. He succeeded in saved Egypt and defeating the Hyksos. On view will be an extraordinary gilded ebony statue of Amunhotep III, whose reign was distinguished by the opulence and grandeur of the objects and buildings that it produced, a small jar decorated with a group of cattle and women; also a kneeling statue of Senenmut (official), the first chief advisor to the great female pharaoh the queen Hatshepsut.

The Egyptian Empire came to the height in the age of the Eighteenth Dynasty, this dynasty was without peer in the ancient history. Egypt had never achieved such wealth and influence of the 18th dynasty's Pharaohs, and it would never again reach that rate of international influence. King Ahmos had driven the enemy (Hyksos) out of Lower Egypt and united Egypt under Theban rulers. King Amenhotep I Tuthmosis I, Tuthmosis II and Hatshepsut had successively orchestrated the internal secure and stability that allowed Egypt to flex its muscles both southward into Nubia and northward into Canaan and Syria. During the reigns of the next three Pharaohs—the mighty father-songrandson dynasties, Tuthmosis III, Amenhotep II, and Tuthmosis IV—the Egyptian realm surged to its greatest expanse, from far south in Nubian in Africa northward to the River Euphrates in the hinterlands of western side of Asia.

After the building of the empire, about 158 years later, Dynasty 18 entered a period of decline, a period of implosion, slow decline at first, and step by step moved toward the ultimate collapse. After the unexpected death of king Tuthmosis IV, who ruled from 8 to 10 years only, two kings Amenhotep III and Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) allowed Egyptian control in Asia to decreased, and Egypt lost the orient domains one by one. So the scholars doubt if the Eighteenth Dynasty start military campaign into Syria and Canaan was during the rule of Tuthmosis IV. There are a certain evidence, from the last years of the reign of Amenhotep III, which found in Amarna that Egyptian Syrian and Canaanite princes in the Levant were very concerned about revolt in the region and were crying out for at least a small level of military support from their once-formidable Nilotic great lords, which never achieved. Add to that, Hittite attack and violent was rising against the kingdom of Mesopotamian of Mittani, whose rulers had been, since the reign of Tuthmosis IV (the brother of Pharaoh). The fact which remains that Egypt at this period either could not, or would not, respond with military assistance to the rapidly deteriorating situation in its now-former Asian provinces.

Pharaohs of the Eighteenth Dynasty:

Ahmose I 1570–1546

Amenhotep I 1525–1504

Tuthmosis I 1524–1518

Tuthmosis II 1518–1504

Tuthmosis III 1504–1450

Hatshepsut† 1498–1483

Amenhotep II 1453–1419

Tuthmosis IV 1419–1386

Amenhotep III 1386–1349

Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) 1350–1334

Smenkhkare 1336–1334

Tutankhamun 1334–1325

Ay 1325–1321

Horemheb 1321–1293

References:

Steven Collins, How Low Did the Once-Great Egyptian Eighteenth Dynasty Sink?
Grimal.N., A History of Egypt, Oxford 1992

Amenemhet II (Nubkaure) 1929–1895

Amenemhet II was the third pharaoh of the dynasty 12. He was the son of king Sesostris I. His reign was a secure period in the ancient Egypt history although he ruled for along time about 34 years. The source for his reign is very limited. We can say that he continued in his father's efforts in foreign relations exactly with Levant where some gifts had been exchanges between the kings. Also the cartouche of Amenemhet II had been found in Lebanon. It is appear that some improvements occured in some field like the economy or trade and agriculture.

Study Sources of Amenemhet II Period:

In fact there is less documents belong to the reign of Amenemhet II. Some of the historical annals of his reign found on parts of his buildings. From that important buildings which have rich with the historical information about Amenemhet II and other pharaohs found at Mit Rahina. That provided the shcolars with more things about Amenemhet's buldings and statues and the military expeditions also the trading expeditions to Egypt in his reign.

The name of Amenemhet II also were found on 4 boxes of bronze which found in Tod, also there ar some cups of silver of an Aegean origin.

Mistakes of Amenemhet II:

The scholars suggested that Amenemhet II have make big mistake when he depened on the nomarchs and the prime minister or his vizier, because those were basically the governors of the Egyptian provinces at this time, but he gave them more authority and great specifications. That made them have the title "king".

Buildings of Amenemhet II:

Some historians suggest theat Amenemhet didn't bult more buildings in his reign. The famous build is his pyramid which built it at Dahshure for unknown reasons.

Khnumhotep II:

The architect of Amenemhet II was Khnumhotep II, who presented more than one Service to the Pharaoh like building some monuments for Amenemhet II which had to be documented. This architect had the idea to exchange some text parts and words through the document. If this document would been stolen, the thief would not find the correct method to the treasure or the gold treasure.

Sphinx of Amenemhat IISphinx of Amenemhat II

Stadelman discovered famouse crime in the reign of Amenemhat II. That is his workmen had stolen stones on sledges from the pyramid of Sneferu, and used it as a vulgar quarry.

The Fourteenth Dynasty

Some scholars put the fourteenth dynasty in the middle kingdom with 11th dynasty, 12th dynasty and 13th dynasty. Other scholars put it in overlap figure between the thirteenth dynasty and fifteenth dynasty through what was called the Second Intermediate Period ( Age of the decline in the arts and and decrease of the skilled workers ).

The rulers of the fourteenth dynasty probably ruled from Avaris in eastern delta in the same time with the rulers of the Thirteenth Dynasty. The origin of its rulers maybe a Semitic origin, and this dynasty take about one hundred years of age.

There are about 76 rulers or more (according to Manetho) who set at the throne from that dynasty. List of its pharaohs found in Turin Papyrus.

The scholars recorded some known kings of that dynasty like Nehesi who ruled from Avaris and his name were found there. Other known king of that dynasty is Merdjefare his name found in eastern Delta also. There are other unknown kings from the fourteenth dynasty nothing found related to them except there names like Sewadjkare, Nebdjefare, Webenre, Khakherewre, Sehebre and Nebefawre. There is no more discovers or monuments bact to this dynasty.

Turin Papyrus

Turin Papyrus

Pharaohs Dynasties or Egyptian Dynasties

The name pharaohs which describe any king of Ancient Egypt is called by the later Greeks: the origin of that name came from the Egyptian per-aa, which mean ‘great house’. Most families of the Egyptian pharaohs and Egyptian queens are put in dynasties.

There are less sources about the earliest Egyptian pharaohs, so all information about them were just suggestions. No kings names recorded before 3100 BCE, so there period called Prehistoric by the historians. And most of the scholars mentioned that the Ancient Egypt civilization are generated from the civilization points or cities which were spread in the Egyptian regions before the predynastic or prehistoric period. This predynastic pionts like Naqada in Sohag, Badari in Assiut and Der Tasa.

Manetho, who lived in Egypt in the Hellenistic period divided the ancient Egyptian history into 30 dynasties. He begins with the year 3000 BCE and end with the year 343 BC with the king Nectanebo II. Nowadays the scholars compare Manetho's source with the records sources of the remained monuments and agreed that the number of all dynasties is 31.

By the efforts of the French scholars [Champollion] who discovered the symbols of the Rosetta Stone, the ancient Egyptian history became clear like the sun of Ankhenaten.

You maybe want to know about:

Aswan monuments.

Power of the new kingdom


Ahmose I (1570–1546 BC)

Ahmose, whose name signifies "Child of the Moon," was certainly not of Theban origin. The moon was the heavenly habitation of the Egyptian Hermes, Thut, who upon earth was invoked by his disciples and adorers as "the thought and will" of the sun god Ra, his heavenly father, in his temple, in the midst of the frequently mentioned and much celebrated Ibis-town of Khmun-Hermopolis, on the left hand of the stream in Middle Egypt. According to ancient custom and usage, the name of this god, and that of his shining emblem in heaven, was with design chosen for the baptismal name of King Ahmose and of his mother "Aahhotep", "the moonly", and also of their offspring Thutmes, whose sovereignty ushered in the fortunate times of the eighteenth dynasty.

Ahmose attacked his enemies by land and sea, conquered the chief seat of their strength, the fortress Auaris, so celebrated in history, and pursued the people of the foreigners far beyond the boundary of Egypt as far as the Canaanitish town Sheruhan. This place will be mentioned later, in the accounts of the wars of King Thutmes III. against Kanaan and Naharain as a resting place on the road from Egypt to the fortress of Gaza.

It is not passed over in silence in Holy Scripture, since Sheruhan is expressly mentioned among the towns which fell to the lot of the inheritance of the tribe of Simeon in the South. In the tomb of the second Ahmose with the surname Pen Nukheb, this country, in which the King fought his Eastern battles, and in which Sheruhan was situated, is designated by its general name. It is the same Zahi, or Zaha, which was before mentioned.

In his tomb Ahmose is made to say, "My early life was passed in the time of the defunct King Ahmose, and of the defimct King Amenhotep I., and the defunct King Thutmes I., and the defunct King Thutmes I, and was finished in the time of Thutmes III. May he live long.' He then continues: I have reached a fortunate old age. I was during my existence in the favor of the king, and was rewarded by his Holiness, and was beloved by the royal court. And a divine woman gave me a further reward, the defunct great queen Makara (Hashop), because I had brought up her daughter, the great queen's daughter, the defunct Noferura."

It was only such a treaty, founded on the concession and recognition of these rights, which enabled the enterprising Ahmose, after the death struggle for the expulsion of the foreigners, to secure himself against insurrection and jealous opposition in the interior of the country, and to lead his veteran warriors from Patoris upon a campaign against the rebellious negroes on the southern frontier of the country.

Taking advantage of the weakness of the empire during the foreign dominion in the north, the widely spread tribes of To Chont on the Nubian districts of the south threw off the ancient yoke of the Pharaohs, and perhaps even set up an independent empire in the hot valleys near the dangerous cataracts of the Nile, which the kings of the twelfth dynasty had step by step wrung from their dusky neighbors. Ahmose, the chief of the sailors, has already related to us how Ahmose the king came out victorious from many struggles, in which a king named Tetan offered an obstinate resistance.

So now not only the two halves of the empire were again reunited under the powerful sceptre of the Pharaoh, but the south was again subjected to Egyptian supremacy. Now at last had the time of leisure arrived, which allowed the king, according to the good old custom, to prove his gratitude, as a beloved son of the Gods, by embellishing and extending their temples.

During the long dominion of the foreigners ' the temples had fallen into decay since the times of our forefathers, and the Pharaoh Ahmose, in the twenty-second year of his reign, gave the command to reopen the deserted quarries in the Arabian chain of mountains, to draw therefrom limestone for the building of the temples in Memphis, Thebes, and the other principal cities of the empire. According to ancient prescribed usage, which had already been practiced by the scribes in the reign of one of the Amenemhats of the twelfth dynasty, the fact was brought to the knowledge of the then existing and future generations by two rock tablets in the quarries of Toora and Maassara, in the neighborhood of the future town of the Khalifs, in the city of Cairo.

The engraved words read thus :

"In the twenty-second year of the reign of King Ahmose, his Holiness gave the order to open anew the rock chambers, and there to cut out the best white stone (limestone) of the hill country (of the name of) An, for the houses of the Gods of endless years' duration, for the home of the divine Ptah in Memphis, for Amon, the gracious god in Thebes..and for all the other monuments, which his Hohness carried out. The stone was drawn by bullocks, which were brought and given over to the foreign people of the Fenekh."

It was only such a treaty, founded on the concession and recognition of these rights, which enabled the enterprising Ahmose, after the death struggle for the expulsion of the foreigners, to secure himself against insurrection and jealous opposition in the interior of the country, and to lead his veteran warriors from Patoris upon a campaign against the rebellious negroes on the southern frontier of the country.

See Ahmose wife:

Queen Nofretari

Ahhotep I (1560- 1530 BCE)

Ahhotep I (1560- 1530 BCE), Ancient Egyptian queen from the Seventeenth dynasty, Tao I was her father and Tetisheri was her mother. She is the wife and the sister of the pharaoh Tao II in the same time. It was believed that she was the mother of the Egyptian pharaohs Ahmose I and Kamose.

Some historians believed that Ahhotep I the founder of the dynasty 18. But no doubt that Ahmose Ebana was the founder of the dynasty, because he was drive out the Hyksos from the Egypt land.

She died in 1530BC after long life [about 90 years old], her tomb at Thebes beside Kamose in Aswan. Her tomb consist of fly and bracelets (three golden fly and and golden bracelets). Her tomb was discovered in 1859AD in Thebes near the Valley of the Kings [in Dra Abu el-Naga]. Her mummy found in bad affection in the coffin.

The coffin of Ahhotep IThe coffin of Ahhotep I

Queen Ahhotep's bracelet
Queen Ahhotep's bracelet

It was suggessted that Ahhotep I led the army against the Hyksos. That suggesst came from some weapons found with the jewelry in her tomb.

Related Posts:

Queen Ankhesenamun
Amenhotep II
Thutmose I

Seventeenth Dynasty

Seventeenth Dynasty appeared during the Hyksos rule in Upper Egypt by Theban princes who start the war against the Hyksos rulers. The chronicler Manetho called that period the Seventeenth Dynasty.

The Seventeenth Dynasty at the end of the second intermediate period (1782–1570) and before the beginning of the new kingdom (1550–1070BC). It contained from 15 Theban kings including Tao I the first known king in the dynasty and his son Tao II who was the father of Kamose. All that three kings fight the Hyksos rulers tell the beginning of the dynasty 18.

Tao I

Seventeenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt history located before the new kingdom and in the end of the Second Intermediate Period (1782–1570). There are three known pharaohs in the dynasty 17, Tao I, Tao II and Kamose (1573–1570). The first pharaoh of this dynasty is Tao I there little information about Tao I and his reign is obscure reign. Tao I was born in 1656 BC and died about 1580. It is said that he was the son of Intef VII (successor of Intef VI). Some scholars believed that Tao I was one of the family of Ahmose.

After the death of Tao I the throne went to his son Tao II. The historical sources was very miserly about the life and the reign of the pharaoh, and that maybe suggest that he ruled for a few months or one year just.

His tomb is unknown but it suggested that his tomb in Karnak.

Dynasty 4, The age of building. The Great Pyramids

Sneferu who founded the Fourth Dynasty, is best known to us today for his prodigious building program. The so-called “Collapsed Pyramid” or “Ruined Pyramid” at Meidum is thought by many Egyptologists to be his first building project. Originally, the Meidum pyramid was a step pyramid, but it appears that Sneferu later ordered the steps to be “filled”, an attempt at building a true pyramid.

The Great Pyramid

The Great Pyramid

A somewhat disputed theory is that the pyramid actually collapsed catastrophically and the mound of rubble around the base is what remains, but no bodies, scaffolding, tools, or the like have ever been found in the mound. The more widely accepted theory is that the pyramid was “quarried” for stone in later times; indeed, the Arabic writers of the 1100s CE report that the pyramid had five steps, while today it has only three.

Sneferu also built two pyramids at Dahshur, not far from Meidum, and these were planned as true pyramids from the start. The first is known as the “Bent Pyramid” owing to the way its slope angle changes partway up from 55 to about 43. This change is believed to be due to subsidence that was noticed while the pyramid was still being built; the accurate cutting and laying of the blocks was not yet what would be seen at Giza. The second, and the first successful true pyramid, is the North Dahshur Pyramid or “Red Pyramid”, so called for the red color of its sandstone blocks in the sun, and built entirely at the “safer” reduced slope.

Sneferu’s son Khufu is even more famous; the Great Pyramid at Giza was built for him. The largest pyramid ever built, it contains millions (estimates vary from two to four million) blocks of sandstone,7 most of them weighing more than two tons apiece. Several smaller “satellite” pyramids were built in its shadow, most likely for Khufu’s wives. Two large boats were also buried in pits adjacent to the pyramid, and were discovered in the 20th Century. The boats are believed to have been used to transport the royal mummy and funeral goods up the Nile at the time of the burial.

While there is much controversy regarding the purpose and technique of pyramid construction, no more satisfactory hypotheses have been proposed than the traditional ones: that the pyramids were built as monuments and tombs for the pharaohs, and were accomplished using systems of ramps, levers, and rollers which were simple in principle but sophisticated in planning and execution.

Khufu’s successors added to the monumental complex on the Giza plateau. Khafre built the second-largest pyramid, an associated funerary temple, and (according to most Egyptologists) the Great Sphinx. Khafre’s pyramid is the central of the three great ones at Giza, and appears in most photographs to be larger than Khufu’s because it stands on bedrock some ten meters higher than Khufu’s, while the pyramid itself is less than three meters shorter. Khafre is perhaps even better known, however, as the builder of the Great Sphinx. The Sphinx’s head is carved to a scale of 30:1—unprecedented in Egyptian art, and not to be repeated until the New Kingdom.

Menkaure added the third pyramid at Giza, and a number of larger than life size statues of Menkaure, his wife, and various goddesses, of surpassing quality, were found at the pyramid. The remaining pharaohs of the Old Kingdom continued building pyramids in Lower and Middle Egypt, and presiding over the solar religion which characterized the period. However, for unknown reasons, Menkaure’s immediate successor Shepseskaf returned to Saqqara for his tomb and built a gigantic mastaba, known today as the Mastaba el-Fara‘un, instead of a pyramid.

The last king of the Fourth Dynasty was Khentkawes, probably the widow of Shepseskaf, the first woman believed to have ruled Egypt alone. Khentkawes’s tomb at Giza is carved into an outcropping of bedrock that remained when the rock around it was quarried for the construction of the pyramids. The presence of a “town” of maintenance settlements and tombs in its vicinity suggests that the queen was indeed regarded as a ruler in her own right and that the Egyptians did not see anything particularly amiss about the arrangement. The queen’s titles are listed in the tomb as “The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, and Mother of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt”. This suggests that the founder of Fifth Dynasty, Userkaf, was actually her son, a fact lost in the ancient lists of rulers.

The Old Kingdom (2707-2170 BC)

With the end of the Second Dynasty, Egypt history into what is called the Old Kingdom - a period encompassing the Third through Eighth Dynasties. The greatest achievements of the Old Kingdom are still visible nearly 5,000 years later: the pyramids. However, the existence of these monumental structures is dwarfed by the sheer scope of the economy, government, and popular will needed to create them.

The first pharaoh of the Old Kingdom, king Nebka, begins the Third Dynasty. However, his predecessor, Djoser, the builder of the first pyramid, overshadowed his reign. Djoser, the son or son-in-law of Khasekhemui, worked with his trusted assistant and architect, Imhotep, to create a monument worthy of the pharaoh in the after life. They built upon the idea of the mastabas used by previous pharaohs in Saqqara. Their novel idea was to take the mastaba, which looked like a raised building with a flat top, and build a smaller mastaba on top of the first, and so on, until they created a series of mastabas that reached to the heavens themselves. Thus was born the first, or the step pyramid.

After Djoser, the remaining pharaohs in the Third Dynasty, Djoserti, Khaba, Mesokhris, and Huni, attempted but failed to build their own step pyramids. Most of their tombs have yet to be found.

Snefru's first two pyramids were step pyramids like Djoser's. His final pyramid began as a step pyramid, but later was finished off in true pyramid form. This was the first of its kind. Although not without problems. As the pyramid neared completion, the ground underneath it gave way, and it collapsed upon itself. This resulted in the now-famous outline known as the Bent Pyramid. This failure, however, taught later pyramid builders to use a less steep gradient. Advancements in construction design and pyramid location also contributed to more stable edifices. At the time of their construction and for almost 2,500 years afterwards, the pyramids sported a sheath of polished white marble. Reflections of the rising and setting sun could be seen for dozens of miles in all directions. When Arabs conquered Egypt in the 7th Century AD, they stripped the marble from what they saw as the work of godless pagans and used it to build their palaces in Cairo.

Snefru’s son, Cheops, used these advances to create the amazing Great Pyramid. However, outside of the Great Pyramid, there is little record of Cheops as pharaoh. There are some claims that he was cruel and abusive, but there is little evidence to support this. What is known about Cheops is that, during his 30-year reign, he mobilized the entire state to create a wonder so magnificent that, not only does it stand to this day, parts of its construction are still mysteries. Also, recent studies have begun to point to Cheops as the creator of the mysterious Sphinx, another of Egypt's wonders. These studies point to the lack of a beard on the Sphinx (the royal beard was a concept that came later in Egypt’s culture) and the style of the architecture as proof that it was created during Cheops’ rule. His successor and son, Djedefre, attempted to build his own temple but failed due to an untimely death.

The next pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty was Djedefre’s younger brother, Chephren. Chephren was in his mid-20’s when he assumed the throne and began work on his pyramid in the hopes of making it as monumental as his father’s. Chephren’s pyramid falls nearly 10 feet short of the Great Pyramid. Chephren’s reign also marks the decline of the great pyramid-building era.

Although later pyramids were built, none rival those created by Cheops and Chephren. The Fourth Dynasty ended quietly under the reign of the pharaohs Bikheris (who followed Chephren), Mycerinus, and Shepseskaf, who returned to the creation of a mastaba for his tomb.

The Fifth Dynasty, ruled over by the pharaohs Userkaf, Sahure, Neferirkare, Shepseskare, Neferefre, Niuserre, Menkauhor, Djedkare, and Unas is relatively unremarkable. Of note is the reduction in scale of monument building and the rise of mortuary temples in place of pyramids as the burial place for the pharaohs.

The Dynasty 6 was as peaceful as the last, but marked a decline in the Old Kingdom. While mortuary temples were used extensively during the Fifth Dynasty, the first pharaoh of this period, Teti, returned to the pyramid as a tomb. However, his pyramid, while technically sound, remained on a much smaller scale than those of the Fourth Dynasty, keeping roughly the same size as the mortuary temples of the Fifth. The decline continued through the peaceful reigns of the first four pharaohs of this time. Userkare, Pepi I (who also built a pyramid), and Nemtiemsaf I followed Teti.

The reign of the next pharaoh, Pepi II, seems to have been the point where the Old Kingdom truly began to fall apart. Pepi II ruled peacefully for 60 years of his life, an immense length of time for a pharaoh. While he completed his pyramid, society fell into idleness and stagnation. Pepi allowed his control of the government to slip, and regional governors realized that they no longer needed the Empire. They could control their own smaller state fine by themselves and not have to worry about the pharaoh looking over their shoulders.

After Pepi II left the throne, Nemtiemsaf II and Nitocris each reigned for two or fewer years and eventually a succession of nameless rulers took over as the kingdom slipped into its first Intermediate Period.

Queen Nefertari

Queen Nefertari the wife of King Ramsses II. (Ramsses II married three of his daughters) Here name mean beautiful companion, also she was called as Mery-en-Mut that mean “Beloved of Mut”. She was one of the great Egyptian women, and here tomb is the most wonderful tomb in the valley of the queen.The symbol of here tomb is Kv66 in Luxor.

She was the daughter of a nobleman in Thebes, here brother is Amenmose। Nefertari had two daughters and four sons, no one of them access to the throne.

Nefertari

Nefertari

Nefertari, the favorite wife of Ramses II, was buried about 3,200 years ago in the most exquisitely decorated tomb in the Upper Egypt. The tomb was discovered by Ernesto Schiaparelli, an Italian archeologist, in 1904. After the discovery, its wall paintings deteriorated at a very fast rate. In fact, comparisons of historical photographs from 1904 to the present reveal that the tomb deteriorated to an alarming extent before emergency conservation began in 1987.

Cartouche of Nefertari

Cartouche of Nefertari