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King Ninetjer

King Ninetjer’s name mean “Horus, the one of the god” or “Nebti, the one of the god”. He reigned from year 2815 to 2778 according to Piccione. His Burial Place Unknown, probably Memphis.

Ninetjer was the 3rd king of the 2nd Dynasty, and took Memphis as his capitol. He ruled ancient Egypt for most 40 years and he was notable for his festivals and fantastic temples.

Historican Manetho gives Ninetjer a reign of 47 years and calles him in a Greek way - Binothris. The change to a b-sound was made in later times when an additional sign (a ram) with that value was put to the king's name. Writings from his own time just content the flag and the weavy line.

Of Eygptian canons his identify therefor is to be read: Baneteren, Baneteru and Neteren (cartouch from Abydos).

Art - From early dynastic

He is the better known of all kings from this early division of the second dynasty. Waterproofings with his name has been found in assorted places in Lower Egypt and most of all in Sakkara where one "nobility class" mastaba at the north escarpment arrested half a dozen. It believably consisted to one of his high officials. His name has as well been discovered in big a mastaba from Giza, but just at one affair in Upper Egypt - at Abydos. It was found on stone vessels from the tomb of the later king Peribsen who possibly had brought them down in the south from the Memphis area.

Aside of all stone vessels his name only appears double on other types of objects: a small ivory mark and a famous statuette of stone.

This good cut little bit measuring 13,5 centimeter in height and 8,8 x 4,8 centimeter at the base, is made of a hard alabaster-like stone with a luster towards greenish-yellow. It shows the king sitting on his throne assuming the white crown of Upper Egypt and at his chest he's holding the crook and the flail. He is appareled in a tight fitting vest and this garment is typically associated with the Sed-festival that happed every 20th year. He looks alike a man in his older days. At both sides of the base his name is written by hieroglyphs not bordered by a serek as depicted in upper left corner of the picture.

Almost of the cognition about his feats comes from the Palermo stone where his name is written higher up the boxes with the annual cases. These entries are from his 6th to his twentieth year on the throne. Writing on stone vessels from Sakkara propose that his reign was at lowest thirty-five years long since a annotation says that the biyearly census had only been accomplished for the 17th time.

The notations about dissimilar festivities are all demur one referring to effects from Lower Egypt. There are records of political events too, since in his 13th year in office he ordered his forces to attack two nameless towns (Sm-r and Há). The name Há can as well be read "northern land" suggesting a rebellion from some identifies in the delta, or disorder at the northern frontier.

Ninetjer's tomb has been discovered in Saqqara just south of Djoser's pyramid composite and about 150 m alongside the tomb galleries of the founder of the dynasty.

His Monuments:

Tomb ataqqara, A construction the tomb of Hotepsekhemwi was found to the east of it, thus slenderly more aside from the pyramid of Unas. Even lower is acknowledged about it. A cursory examen has brought to light some seals abiding the name of the 2nd Dynasty king Ninetjer, which has appropriated us to describe this tomb as Ninetjer's.

When it was first acceded by archaeologists, it was as well found to contain 1000s of mummies of the Late Dynastic Period and later. These mummies distinctly belonged to intrusive burials of that date.

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King Qa'a (Kaa)

scholars suggested that Qa'a lived from 3100 to 2890 BCE. For Manetho AF he reigned 26 years from 2889 to 2859 BCE.

Almost scholars think that King Qa'a was the last king of the first dynasty. We may as well assure his name as Kaa, or many other fluctuations. Although Egyptologists frequently disaccord on dating, our current better estimate is that he lived from around 3100 to 2890 BC.

Whilst this information on Qa'a is extremely circumscribed, till Dreyer and Kaiser analysis their information and furnish us with more information, brief additional is known of this former Egyptian Pharaoh. He was believably entombed in Tomb Q at Abydos, where 2 typical royal funerary stelae abiding his name were discovered on the east side of the tomb. This tomb has been hollowed on a number of dissimilar occations, first by Emile Amelineau in the 1890s, so Flinders Petrie and in 1991, by Werner Kaiser and Gunther Dreyer. The work treated this later German team brought out many small artefacts and architectural contingents that had been commanded by earlier diggings. These include 30 autographed labels that delineate the bringing of oil, credibly built from berries or tree rosins, and belike from the Syria-Palestine region.

Seal beliefs and artifacts have likewise been discovered in Tomb Q with the call of Hetepsekhemwy, the first pharaoh of the second dynasty. This suggests that Hetepsekhemwy accomplished Tomb Q, and that there was no real breach between the first and second dynasties of Egypt. The change in dynasties from the first to the second was primitively reported by Manetho without explanation.

We besides know of four tombs in Saqqara that date to this kings rule. The lower part of two wooden statues were found in one of these tombs in a set of rooms on the north side. Some scholars think this may have been an bidding chapel, and that the mortuary temple in pyramid composites may have evolved from this structure.

Egyptologists have likewise discovered the stelae of 2 of Qa'a's officials, Merka and Sabef. These stelae have more composite inscriptions then earlier hieroglyphics, and may have indicated in increasing sophistication in the apply of this writing.

Qáa was the last king of the dynasty and agreeing to Manetho he reigned for about 26 years, and this is belike because various mastabas at Sakkara are dated to his rule.

During 1993 a German archaeological despatch re-excavated his tomb at Abydos and discovered that a lot alterations had been made to the tomb and attempted over significant period of time. It is one of the almost impressive at the Abydos cemetery and the funeral chamber still held divisions of the wooden floor and the colourful blueprints on the walls. A fine artefact was found by archaeologist Petrie in 1900 (shown in picture left). It's a backing rod made of ivory showing a confined of war with his hands adhered behind his back. Many is pointing to that the described man is from a tribe in the east, and the sign above is head is a really unusual hieroglyph that in later times at least, corresponded enemies from that direction. His large beard is a little to much to come from an Egyptian, they used to shave themselves at least on their cheeks. Other find from his grave was three copper bowls with the king's name on. The practice of subsidiary burial where servants were killed so to serve the ruler in the afterlife discontinued after the reign of Qáa. The beginning of his reign is recorded on the Cairo stone, assuring about his ceremonial duties and basing of temples...

Amongst the ascertains in his tomb in the 1990s was a seal belief with all the kings from the first dynasty up to Qáa himself was written down. It is a singular piece with all pharaohs in a line dropping queen Neith-Hotep. The fact that Narmer is the first in line remarks him as the founder of the dynasty and unifier later called Menes.

A check into administration was brought to light when year judges from his tomb told about timber deported to the royal workshops and festivals.

Qáa is authenticated to the south from rock cuttings near the old town of Hierakonpolis, and also adverted on jar sealings and two besmirched stela. Until the reign of Den Egypt seems to have enjoyed stability and prosperity, but during Anedjib's reign order broke down when contradictory divides (Horus versus Set) caused alterations that ended the dynasty.

During 1960s came to light on the caper dealers' market a singular bit of art. It was a totally unknown stela of pharaoh Qaa. In his serek where his name should be, was amazingly nothing but the white crown of Upper Egypt (the Hedjet). Thus he is afterward this find also called by the double name Qaa-Hedjet. Nothing in hieroglyphic writing on the stone affirms his identity, which is made solely on aesthetic grounds from the way the relief pictures and sign are did.

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