Pharaoh Neferkauhor

The name of pharaoh Qakare means, "Strong is the Soul of Re" (in picture left) and his birth name was she shorter Ibi (picture right). His name is present in king lists from Abydos and Turin. He built a small pyramid located at South Sakkara. It was investigated in the 1800s by German Egyptologist Lepsius who found it to be a true pyramid though it looked more like a mastaba in its ruined state. The identification of the builder has been made through reading hieroglyphic writings on the walls in the grave chamber, the latest so-called "pyramid texts" known. Today they are protected by constructions made of concrete within the monument, that is just a three metre high pile of rubble. 

The pyramid of kingIbi is of a modest size compared to the monuments from the pyramid era.
An entrance from the north side leads to the (red) burial chamber and the serdab - side chamber, (green).
A small mortuary temple was built
at the east side. 

The whole complex was not oriented in the cardinal directions (see picture above) and the mortuary temple was built of bricks and hardly more elaborated than a chapel. No causeway has been detected leading from it and there possibly never was one and the same goes for a valley temple.
The measures of the pyramid are roughly estimated but the sides are likely to have been 31,5 meters and the height of the building about 21 meters.


King Wadjkare

King Wadjkare (meaning: "Prosperous is the Soul of Re") is known from a written remain from his exemption decree with a cartouche containing his throne name. A very long birth name (Demedjibtawy) has by some been considered his, and others claim that he (Wadjkare) actually was a king from dynasty nine. His residence was probably located in the capital Memphis and he is one of few kings from this time who have left archaeological remnants confirming his existence.


King Nikare

King Nikare in Abydos list number forty-eight notes NEKARE. He's not known from elsewhere and no remains have been found from him.


King Neferkare III

King Neferkare NEBI ("The protector") was a son of King Pepi II. He is present in the Abydos list and twice mentioned in the tomb of his mother - queen Ankhesenpepi II. No remains from him have been found.


Queen Nitocris Dates and Succession

Queen Nitocris Dates

Piccione 2260—2250?

Queen Nitocris Succession

Possibly succeeded husband/brother Merenre II

Queen Nitocris Persons

Queen Nitocris's father Pepi II
Queen Nitocris's husband Merenre, brother

Queen Nitocris Burial Place



Pyramid of Udjebten (dauther of Pepi I)

Southeast corner of Pepi’s enclosure wall, she was daughter of Pepi I and wife of Pepi II
Mortuary temple is very simple, entrance on the north, a vestibule, a courtyard without columns, a chapel and two statue niches, and an offering hall. Completely ruined, only an alabaster offering table remains
The most ruined of the  queen’s pyramids, discovered by Jequier. Core is barely visible, but inscriptions imply that the pyramid was sheathed in gold.
Interior structure is the same at the other pyramids – the walls are covered in pyramid texts, of which 84 fragments were recovered, about 1/10 the actual inscriptions.
Has an enclosure wall, but a second wall encloses both the main complex and secondary complex – house and storage facilities. Each of her beneficiary held a chamber here.


Pyramid of Ipwet

Ipwet was one of the less attested queens. In this dynasty, pyramids were not built for queens who did not bear pharaohs.
Southwest of Nieth’s complex
Mortuary temple is l-shaped, including a vestibule, open courtyard, and a offering hall.
Pyramid is completely ruined, and is smaller than Neiths.
A granite sarcophagus was found in the westernmost storeroom of the mortuary temple. It may have belonged toe Queen Ankhnesmerire IV, another of Pepi II's consorts and may have been the mother of Neferkare Nebi. Possibl outlived Pepi II and married again, possibly to Prince Iuu.


Pepi II Titulary and Dates

Pepi II Titulary

Horus name: Netjery-khaw
Nebty name: Netjery-khaw-nebty
Golden Falcon name: Bik-nub-sekhem
Prenomen: Neferkare, “Beautiful is the Soul of Re”
Nomen: Pepi
Also Pepi, Phiops, Fiops

Pepi II Dates

Possibly 94 or 64 years ma have been the longest in history
Ascended at the age of 6.
Oxford: 2278—2184
Clayton: 2278—2184
Egyptsite: 2278—2184
Piccione 2355—2261

Pepi II Succession

Predecessor older half-brother Merenre
Coregent with mother Ankhnesmerire II and her brother Djau
Successor – unknown, intermediate period
May have been succeeded by a son, Merenre II, for a year or so
May have been succeeded by wife Nitocris

Pepi II Persons

Father Pepi I
Mother Ankhnesmerire II, sister of his older brother Merenre and wife of Merenre
Harkhuf, governor of Aswam
Wife Neith
Son Merenre II out of Neith
Possibly daughter Nitocris, married to Merenre II

Pepi II Attestations

Ka-chapel in the temple Abydos
Pyramid and mortuary complex in saqqara
Wife’s smaller pyramid nearby
Calcite statue of the king and mother
Degree found at abydos, koptos, sed-festival inscriptions

Pepi II Burial place

Pyramid in south Saqqara


Remains from Merenre I Time

Other remains from his time are:

1) A small sphinx of Merenre in the National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh.
2) A box made of hippopotamus ivory in the Louvre Museum in Paris France.
3) An inscriptions on ivory found at the pyramid temple of Menkaure at Giza.
4) Notes in biographies from owners of private tombs in Abydos (2), Elephantine, Deir el-Gabrawi, Edfu and Sakkara.

His name has also been found in rocks carvings in the Wadi Hammamat path between the Nile Valley and the Red Sea, and in alabaster quarries.
 The name of Merenre's pyramid (hieroglyphs right) was: "The Shining and Beautiful Pyramid" or "The Beauty of Merenre shines". The sign for shining (at far left) was the red sun with its yellow beams by the horizon.


Merenre I Titulary and Dates

Merenre I Titulary

Horus name: Ankhkhaw
Nebty name: Ankhkhawnebty
Golden Falcon name: Nebwy-nub
Prenomen: Merenre, Beloeved of Re
Nomen: Nemtyemzaf , Nemty is his Protection

Merenre I Dates

Oxford: 2287—2278
Clayton: 2283—2278
EgyptSite: 2283—2278
Piccione 2361—2355

Merenre I Succession

Predecessor father Pepi I our of Ankhnesmerire I
Successded by younger half-brother Pepi II
Coregent with father Pepi for a few years

Merenre I Persons

Father Pepi I
Mother Ankhnesmerire I
Wife Ankhnesmerire II, widow of Pepi I and mothe of successor Pepi II
Daughter Ankhnesmerire III, wife of Pepi II
Daughter Ipwet (Iput II)

Merenre I Attestations

Copper  statue
Small sphinx
Inscriptions on a box, rock inscription in aswan, decreess and by tomb biographies.

Merenre I Burial place

Pyramid in south Saqqara
Oldest known royal mummy