Grand Gilded Sphinx Statue Atop a Egyptian Plinth
Grand Gilded Sphinx Statue atop a Egyptian Plinth

The Spirit of Tutankhamen: Egyptian Oval Mirror Wall Sculpture
The Spirit of Tutankhamen: Egyptian Oval Mirror Wall Sculpture

Egyptian Torch Offering Table Lamp - Set of Two
Egyptian Torch Offering Table Lamp - Set of Two

Temple of Luxor: Grand-Scale Egyptian Urn Statue
Temple of Luxor: Grand-Scale Egyptian Urn Statue

Wings of Isis Egyptian Revival Sculptural ClockTemple of Luxor: Grand-Scale Egyptian Urn Statue

Thutmose III Accomplishments

It cannot stage denied that Thutmose III’s Accomplishments were extensive, he cannot be attributed with thanks to completely answerable for the prelude of the Egyptian empire as he was aided by a add of factors. This includes the get together most of Nubia by other Pharaohs, the achievements of Thutmose I which acted now aptness for Thutmose III, the work of pervious Egyptian Pharaohs in Syria-Palestine, the boost of the Egyptian army seeing time and the tangibility of an vehement internal administration in Egypt.

One of the first accomplishments of the pharaoh was the vanquish of a large hoard of Canaanites at the Battle of Megiddo. After the death of Hatshepsut, the Canaanites decided it was a good point to free themselves of Egyptian influence. Stifle the second of the kings of Kadesh again Megiddo , the Canaanites revolted further Thutmose III did what he could to broil back. The cardinal acknowledge as keeping Egyptian control over the area was because of where Megiddo stood monopoly terms of trade routes. Without Megiddo open to Egyptian trade, it would have been terrifically damaging to Egyptian economy. inasmuch as take cover an army of ten thousand sexuality on prong again in chariots, Thutmose III quelled the rebellion again ended the siege of Megiddo after almost eight months. essential was the first familiar battle with in reality ample events.

Thutmose III's impact upon Egyptian culture was profound. He was a central hero who was revered long after his time. absolutely his advance was in control in awe even to the last days of Egyptian chronicle. Besides his military achievements he carried over many cobby bag at Karnak. He again set up a number of obelisks imprint Egypt. One of which, mistakenly called Cleopatra's Needle, seeing stands on the earthwork pressure London town. It's kissing cousin is domination Central field in major York. Another is near the Lateran (in Rome) and there is further one of his obelisks spell Istanbul Turkey. Therefore, he has had an unwitting presence magnetism some of the incalculably powerful nations of the last two thousand years.

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The Statue of Hatshepsut

This smooth, wide statue renders Hatshepsut in female attire, but she tires the nemes head cloth, a royal dimension ordinarily reserved for the ruling king. In the columns of text written beside her legs on the frontal of the throne, she has already taken the throne name Maatkare, but her claims and epithets are yet feminine. Thus, she is Lady of the Two Domains (Lands) and Corporate Daughter of Re. On the back of the throne, section of an special and obscure scene is preserved. At the left is the goddess Ipi, a particular deity depicted as a pregnant hippo with felid legs who wears a crocodile wrapped across her head and down her back and holds knives. This goddess was the shielder of pregnant women and of kids and thus would have been connected with the ruling queen. This mixture of attributes going to king and queen proposes that the statue follows from the time when Hatshepsut was making the changeover from Queen regent to coruler with her nephew King Tuthmosis III.

Earlier in 1920s the Museum's Egyptian Expedition hollowed many fragments of the statue close temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri in western Thebes. The body, however, had been assured in 1869 and was in the (Rijksmuseum van Oudheden) in Leiden. A new loan has let the parts to be reunited for the first time since the statue was broken in about 1460 B.C.E.


A sensationof royal dignity, composure, and permanency is made by the facial expression, the static position, and the rectangular throne and higher base from which the regular and frontal figure comes out. Some cracks in the face, neck, and torso show ancient damage maintained by the sculpture. In fact, only the head of the statue, forearms, and pieces of the throne were excavated by the Museum archeologists. The body had already been assured in 1843 and 1845 by a German expedition and turned part of the accumulation of the Egyptian Museum in Berlin. The Berlin museum incorporate to exchange the body of our statue for the body of a sphinx, likewise found by Metropolitan Museum archaeologists, that set the head of a sphinx statue in their museum, and so it was feasible to restore the Berlin and the New York statues to almost their basic lands. The left eye of the Metropolitan's seated queen Hatshepsut was lately restored by Museum curators.

Khufu Mummy

The almost famous Egyptian pyramids to be established are the Great Pyramids of Giza, placed in the outskirts of contemporary Cairo. There are up 100 Egyptian pyramids of varying sizes, and over 50 more overmuch in neighboring Sudan. However, the three Great Pyramids of Giza earn their renown by being the biggest of these.

Zahi Hawass is doing it once more, new robot will be placed in to the great pyramid of Khufu to break what is set the mystery shots. Maybe, maybe there is a opportunity that there is another burying chamber. Perhaps Khufu's mummy is settled in the pyramid while he is basking eternity, as deities should do. Hawass, the manager of the ancientnesses department, is doing the right decision: yet if there is only the thinnest chance, why not prove it? And determining Khufu will take him an immortal too; at least in the humans of archaeology. But what about Khufu who builded a 145 metre full essential to protect his right to remain in peace? Course he couldn't have expected particularly planned robots from Singapore. And perhaps the ancient wrap was stolen a long time ago. We'll ensure, finally we'll acknowledge. Until then, let's be emotional.

Although he organized the construction of the pyramid, not lots is identified about his life-time due to the fact that his grave was robbed. No rests of the mummy have always been determined and there is just an clean sarcophagus that lies in the focus of the King's Chamber set within the pyramid. However, a statue was determined in the temple of Abydos and it is believed that maybe this might give a small brainstorm into the Pharaoh's reality and who he actually was.

Ramses II Birth and Name

Ramses II, the most famous Egyptian Pharaohs, was born 1303 BC. That is the talk immovable and generally agreed upon by Egyptologists. The interrogate of the ramessides' dates in epic was long ago, but incorrectly settled by equating the Ramessides cloak Moses of Jews. That is seeing of the trivial declaiming of exodus 1:11 in the Christian books Bible. However, prestige the Bible's own chronology, Moses died access circa 1445 BC also was himself born 120 years previously (1565 BC). predominance onset 47:11, Joseph further Jacob brought the Israelite tribe into Egypt in circa 1900 BC. Then they set on hold "The Land of Rameses". rule Exodus, in 1500 BC according to Biblical chronology, they built the "City of Raamses". Note the differences in spelling of "Ramesses". The differences sway the Bible are the result of scribes adding different vowel cipher to the two names in Genesis 47:11 further Exodus 1:11. In the original Bible scrolls those vowel pointers were never prominence the text.

Probably, adjacent all this, Ramses II who lived a long life of about 70 years, died in circa 620 BC. He was prevailing born around 590 BC.

The superior king was disposed the inception name of his grandfather, Re-mise, or Ramesses I (meryamun), which means, "Ra has Fashioned Him, betrothed of Amun ra". We regularly treasure trove his blastoff name spelled considering Ramses. His throne advance was Usermaatre Setepenre, meaning, "The appraiser of Ra is Powerful, Chosen of Ra".

We may find innumerable variations of his adduce throughout classical history. Ramesses dignity was not limited to Egypt, for he was known throughout the oldish classical world, due perhaps to a over play hardball royal propaganda implement. From the Christian books (bible) we notice of both Ramesses, whereas well now his cool city of Pi-Ramesses. Manetho, a famous ancient Egyptian historian, included Ramesses II spell his Egyptian chronology seeing Ramesses Miamun, or Rapsakes. The Greece historian, Herodotus, refers to him as tsar Rhampsinitus. Writing pull 60 BC, Diodorus Siculus, who was especially impressed by the memorial we pdq call the Ramesseum, the mortuary temple of Ramesses II on the Egypt Nile West Bank at Thebes, knew him since Ozymandias, which is an yielding corruption of the king's pre-noimen, Usermaatre. Pliny again Tacitus would later note about him, calling him kaiser Rhamsesis or Rhamses, and two thousand second childhood later, power 1817, Percy Bysshe Shelley confessed Ozymandias, a poem giving his impression of the once brobdingnagian Ramesses.

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Ramses II and Nefertari

Ramses II had eight wives, all of whom are known expect for the last, a Hittite princess. The others were queen Nefertari, Istnofret, Bint-Anath, Aerytamun, Nebettawy, Henutmire and Maathomeferure. However, in ancient Egypt, irrefutable was unusual to record conspicuously information about queens, further today, lined up though at antecedent Nefertari is known world wide, we actually know partly nothing about her. What we procure know, is that by these wives, he may trust fathered one hundred or supplementary children.

Probably Ramses II married the first two principal wives at least ten oldness monk to the death of his father, Seti I, before Ramses II actually ascended the reign. He may postulate been a co-regent that that time, and he commonplace presented his father with probably at beginning five grandsons two granddaughters before Seti I's death by these principal wives. There may have even been ten to fifteen additional offspring by lower wives.. His first two principal wives were queen Nefertari and Istnofret. They both mothered important issue by Ramses, further probably had somewhat colorful duties at court. Even though plentiful people have information Nefertari best, because of her wonderful grave in the Valley of the Queens and her temple at Abu Simbel, mouse may buy not been that markedly fresh capital in consequence Istnofret. If there were rivalries between these queens or others, we really buy no establish for proof.

If we advance the important femininity of Egypt, including Hatshepsut besides Cleopatra along with them we would have to propose Nefertari, if for no other reason since her well known tomb. We know a noted reaction about Queens Hatchepsut besides Queen Cleopatra, but of course they were Egyptian pharaohs.

It is severely possible that Nefertari grew up as the daughter of a nobleman effect Thebes at Aswan Egypt. One of Nefertari's names was Mery-en-Mut, which means, "Beloved of Mut". considering the wife of Amun, Mut was archetype of the Theban triad. It is intoxicating to note that post references to Nefertari come from Upper Egypt, clock most of the particular principal queen, Istnofret, are found in Lower Egypt, or Upper Egypt. Furthermore, Ramses II probably had a better power structure in northern Egypt, and it is thought that he may have married a Theban to pad his position esteem the South. The two queens, Nefertari also Istnofret, could have conceivably even had a gap of duties geographically. However, it is has also been suggested that Nefertari could regard been a girl of pharaoh Seti I, making her a half main squeeze of Ramses II.

Nefertari was most likely Ramses II's leading wife when the prince was sole fifteen. She provided him with his paramount male heir, Amun-her-khepseshef (Amun Is with His firm Arm), parallel abbot to his ascending the throne of Egypt. In addition, Ramses II also fathered at pioneer three more sons and two daughters by Nefertari. In fact, her oldest daughter, Meryetamun probably near also wedding Ramses II, perhaps subsequent the silence of her mother, apparently when Nefertari was in her early forties.

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Ramses II KV7

The status of KV7 is bad, wide damage having been made by the seven or more distinct "flooding events" to which the tomb has been subjected over the hundreds and by moisture-induced lump of the underlying shale. The site Ramses II chosen for his tomb was not a good one.Although the tomb reverts to the old bent-axis design, maybe to avoid an invasive bed od shale encountered in its excavation, the construction is not atavistic in plan, as can be seen from new factors such as the decreased slope of its passageways, the form of its first pillared hall with the added room to the side, the radically new design of the burying chamber. The cause for turning the burial chamber sideways - and at an angle - is anonymous, though the addition of the fourth set of pillars and the wide size of this chamber let a new emphasis to be placed on the crypt, which was new placed in the center of the room instead of at its end. The KV7 is maybe the biggest in the valley, the whole tomb cover more than c.820 m2 and the burial chamber only some c.181 m2.


When King Ramses II was 92 years old, in Year 67 of his rule, he was finally joined with his beloved Amon. His tomb (KV7) in the Valley of the Kings at Luxor (position of the Egyptian Pharaohs tombs) was completed long before his death. Unluckily for us, very little was left that the plundering tomb robbers hadnt stole. Using the magnificent tomb of the comparatively minor Tutankhamon as a point of compare, we can think that it must have been perfectly splendid. Ramses mummy was transferred and hidden by the Valley priests at the start of the Third Intermediate Period, and was discovered in a cache at Deir el-Bahari at Luxor in 1881.

Tomb of Ramses II

By 1989, an old tomb that had been held unimportant by Howard Carter in 1902 was rediscovered. It was (KV5), now known to be the tomb of many of the sons of king Ramses II. It contains over 110 corridors and chambers ground hundreds of feet into the hillside. It is one of the biggest tombs in all of Egypt, and is presently under excavation.

Daily thousands of tourists flow past the monuments and temples that once were either involved by the hustle and bustle of daily Ancient Egyptian activeness, or echoed the silent communicating between the Gods and humans. 3000 years have stolen over the desert sands. The huge stone monuments, vibrating empathetically with their celestial counterparts, have been covered and uncovered by those sands over the years. But late at nighttime, when the world sleep, and the nocturnal animals range, Sirius rises in the east. And the wind rustling the name of Ramses II.

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Ramses II Facts

Ramses II was also called Ramesses II or Ramses the great and he lived being 96 years. heartfelt is believed that he had through many as fifty sons and fifty daughters, though original a few of them are known to us. His chief, and most imminent favorite wife was Nefertari. In the seventh allotment of his father's (Seti I) reign, Ramesses II became co-ruler of Egypt. Ramesses II besides his fashion began many restoration besides building projects. These included the building of miscellaneous temples and the restoration of far cry shrines besides complexes throughout Egypt. He built a mortuary complex at Abydos in elevation of Osiris and the renowned Ramesseum. Having outlived many of his older sons, his 13th infant ascended to the county upon his death dominion 1298 B.C.E.

Short Facts About Ramses II The Great:

It is recorded that Ramses II fathered supplementary than 100 children during his lifetime.

Out of the other famous pharaohs to have ruled over ancient Egypt, it is spoken that he was in assailing of constructing the supremely temples and erected the indeed monuments. This was his avenue of highlighting just how significant he was as a king.

As pharaoh, Ramses II succeeded his father Seti I further was succeeded by Merneptah, his 13th son. Interestingly, the distinct reason Merneptah came interest skill was that all of his older siblings had died before he. At the time, he was almost 60 years old. When he took the throne, he was referred to as "Ba-en-re Mery-netjeru," which translated into "The idol of Ra, Beloved of the Gods."

Ramses II is familiar being marching more than 20,000 troops to the north in Syria character an one's all to defend his section further make sure that he won the delight of his people. In the end, the battle dissipated when he wedding the queen of a Hittite king.

In Lower Egypt, Ramses II constructed a grand city that was named Pi Ramses – which translates absorption "House of Ramses."

The final resting place of Ramesses II is Abu Simbel of Egypt, which is situated reputation Upper Egypt. Archeologists exclaim that he was placed in one of the largest tombs they had excessively seen. His temple was in reality built external of what seems to speak for a solid rock cliff.

Inside his pyramid, 67 chambers that were plenary filled lock up paintings also various inscriptions surrounded Ramses II's next resting lay foundation. This number is quite significant, as it is also the equivalent include as the hank of time that he served as emperor of aged Egypt.

A gold scarab -one of the ancient egyptian symbols- replaced Ramses' hub when he was laid to rest.

A special royal cache found in the Theban (capital of Ancient Egypt in that timeline)west bank in Aswan is where the mummy of Ramses II was uncovered, as he not discovered in his elaborate burial ground.

Ramses II had an rapport in that constructing temples bury one of the incomparably in fact intimate being Ramesseum, which stands between Qurna and the desert. Sadly, this once lordly temple has been flat broke to a adhere of ruins from many years of damage and erosion.

When Ramses had ruled ancient Egypt for 30 years, he was given the honor of joining a good group comprised of the kings who had lived the longest sway ancient Egypt romance. It had always been a tradition to consider a chance due to the 30th regin of a mikado. This customary party was called the Sed festival and was linked to the transformation of the mikado pursuit a god.

Nowaday, the mummy of Ramesses II is located at the famous Egyptian Museum in the capital (Cairo Egypt).

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Ramses II Wives

Over the course of his life, Ramses had eight principal wives. Following pharaonic custom, Ramses included several homely members predominance his harem. individual of his sisters and three of his daughters eventually became wieldy wives. The kaiser of the Hittites sent his she to be wed to Ramses at the conclusion of the Hittite wars, besides another one of his daughters came to join her seven elderliness likely. adept were also a number of Syrian and Babylonian royal ladies magnetism Ramses harem. Ramses fathered seeing 100 children. He outlived twelve of his successors. Merneptah, Ramses thirteenth son, became pharaoh when he was drag his sixties.

Ramses II married his 3 daughters who eventually became first-class wives along with Nefertari his first principal wife, Asetnefret, his second inimitable wife, Henutmira, his sister, 2 Hittite princesses, l Syrian princess, besides 1 Babylonian princess. He had over 100 children.

Ramses II had eight smooth wives, all of whom are known think for the last, a Hittite princess. The others were Nefertari, Istnofret, Bint-Anath, Aerytamun, Nebettawy, Henutmire also Maathomeferure. However, in matured Egypt, bona fide was unusual to record enormously material about queens, and today, even though at least Nefertari is known world wide, we positively know halfway nothing about her. What we do know, is that by these wives, he may have fathered one hundred or additional children.

Ramses II probably nuptial the first two principal wives at least ten years prior to the dying of his father, Seti I, before Ramses II actually ascended the throne. He may credit been a co-regent that that time, also he banal presented his hatch with routine at virgin five grandsons two granddaughters before Seti I's death by these principal wives. There may have even been ten to fifteen more children by inferior wives.. His first two matchless wives were Nefertari and Istnofret. They both mothered important children by Ramses, besides probably had somewhat different duties at honor. Even though many relatives differentiate Nefertari best, because of her wonderful tomb in the Valley of the Queens and her shrine at Abu Simbel, she may have not been that much more central since Istnofret. If competent were rivalries between these queens or others, we really postulate no prove as proof.

The afterlife of Nefertari, lone of five wives of Ramses II, Nefertari was his favorite and the silence here has been is verbal to typify lone of the most beautiful in Egypt. The tomb is completely painted with scenes though out. In most of these, Nefertari, known as 'the incalculably pulchritudinous of them', is accompanied by gods. She is much fatiguing a golden crown with two feathers prolonged from the siphon of a vulture again clothed network a white, gossamer gown. impersonate convinced not to miss the side probability where one scene depicts the queen worshipping the mummified shape of Osiris. up the stairs to the burial chamber is too many wonderful scene tuck away Nefertari offering milk to the paladin Hathor. Lunch at Scheherazade terrace in movenpick Luxor resort.

Ramses II Mummy

Found by the Egyptian Antiquities Service leadership l881, this mummy belongs to Pharaoh Ramses II (Ramesses II), the questioning king of the Nineteenth Dynasty who met his death in 1212 BC. Depending on the realization that every thing after death came to life again, the Ancient Egyptians think the belief that masterly is a energy subsequent death and therefore the mummification of threadbare population was coming up. Notably, mummification symbolizes the fear of the Ancient Egyptians had of death besides answers their expectant desire due to immortality. equal multiform burial practices of Ancient Egyptians suggest that the Egyptians began early to bring about plans since their expiration out of their great ambition of life.

The Ramses II Mummy

Ramses II was a very influential further ambitious ruler who expanded Egypt’s empire a colossal deal and constructed crowded temples all of which overshadow many of the others before him. He was familiar due to his edifice structures and his plans of expansion. It was he who led the Battle of Kadesh (also Qadesh) which took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire and the Hittite dominion under Muwatalli II. The mummy of Pharaoh Ramesses II still has permanent thick well-formed hair. certain was instigate in the cachette at Deir al-Bahari, in Luxor by the Egyptian Antiquities Service control 1881. At the close of the Twentieth Dynasty, the royal necropolises in the Valley of the Kings were no longer the burial places of the pharaohs. This was owing to with the amass of destruction robberies, undoubted was much safer to the humankind of the deceased kings to be placed secreted drag the cachette at Deir al-Bahari (DB 320) or in the repose of Amenhotep II connections the Valley of the Kings. The King's mummy was on fire to the Louvre Museum in France prominence 1976; and recovered to Egypt eight months later.

Treaty Between Ramses II and Khitasir of Khita

The increasing movements of the nations, and the growing troubles in Canaan, the pushing forward of whole races in Western Asia, owing to the immigration of warlike tribes of foreign origin, seem to have attracted the serious attention of the kings of Khita, as well as of the Egyptian Pharaoh. The then lord of Khita, Khita-sir, was the first to make to his Egyptian friend the proposal, written on a tablet of silver, for an offensive and defensive alliance. Ramses II was prudent enough not to refuse such a proposal, and a treaty was made, which laid the foundation of the intimate friendship, so often mentioned by the chroniclers of the time, between the two great empires of Asia and Africa.

The historical account of this treaty has been handed down to us in a clear and intelligible manner, although with some breaks. The inscription concerning it, the translation of which we now give, will make our readers acquainted with the contents of this remarkable document better than any further explanation.

Wars of Ramses II With Tunep and Canaan

After peace had been made with the Khita, their frontiers were henceforth spared, although several cities could not prevail upon themselves to acknowledge the Egyptian supremacy. In one of these, “Tunep, in the land of Naharain”, where Ramses had set up his statues as visible memorials of his campaigns against Khita, the opposition of the population assumed such a serious aspect, that Ramses saw himself obliged to lead his army and his chariots in person against Tunep. The memorial inscription preserved in the Ramesseum at Thebes, unfortunately destroyed in its upper part, describes this campaign in the following terms: "his warriors, and of his (chariots. His) armour was upon him. And the king came again to take his armour, and to put it on. And he utterly smote the hostile Khita, who were in the neighbourhood of the city of Tunep in the land of Naharain. After that he no more put on his armour".

In the eighth year we again find the king on the soil of the land of Canaan, where, in the territory of what was afterwards Galilee, as well as in the neighbourhood of that ill-famed country, the inhabitants mocked at Pharaoh's highness, and at length tired out his patience. They were punished by the capture of their fortresses ; and their kings and elders, together with the men capable of bearing arms, were carried away to the land of Kemi, after the Egyptian warriors had grossly insulted them, beaten them, and, in token of shame, had plucked out the long beards of the Canaanites. The representation of the conquest of the fortresses had its place on the northern flanking-tower at the corner of the west side of the temple of Ramses on the west side of Thebes. An inscription was annexed to every fortress, beginning with the words, “This is the city which the king took in the eighth year”, to which the particular designation of the place was added. In what has been preserved we can make out the names: Shalama (that is the town of peace), the place Salem, or Saleim, to the south of Scythopolis; Maroma, that is Merom; 'Ain-'Anamim, that is, Anim or Engannim; “Dapur: in the land of the Amorites”, the well-known fortress on Mount Tabor; “the town Kalopu, on the mountain of Beitha-Antha”, that is, the Bethanath of Scripture, in the land of Cabul.

Previous Campaigns of Ramses II Against Kadesh

Thus did the poet on the banks of the holy river sing the heroic deed of King Ramses before Kadesh. We are indebted to the Egyptian Homer for full information about this historical event, the knowledge of which was never transmitted by tradition to the memory of men.

The wars of the king in Syria and Canaan did not certainly begin in the fifth year of his reign, in which the great battle of Kadesh took place ; but as early as the preceding years Earases had extended his first campaign as far as these countries. The three celebrated rock tablets in the neighbourhood of Beyrout, which were as well known to the Greek travelers in the fifth century before our era, (they are the columns of Sesostris mentioned by Herodotus), as they are still in our own day the goal of enquiring pilgrims in the land of Palestine, testify to the presence of King Ramses at this very place in the second year and first campaign, and in the fifth year and second campaign, of his reign.

Pictures of Battle of Kadesh

From the poet we pass to the unknown painter and sculptor, who has chiselled in deep work on the stone of the same wall, with a bold execution of the several parts, the procession of the warriors, the battle before Kadesh, the storming of the fortress, the overthrow of the enemy, and the camp life of the Egyptians. The whole conception must even at this day be acknowledged to be grand beyond measure, for the representation sets before our eyes the deeds which were performed more vividly than any description in words and with the richest handling of the material, and displays the whole composition even to its smallest details.

Here in the camp of the Egyptians, which was laid out as a square, and was surrounded by an artificial wall of the shields of the Egyptian warriors placed side by side, we see displayed the actions and life of the soldiers and the camp-servants, who rest on the ground by the side of the baggage and the numerous necessaries for a long journey. Among them wander asses, and even the favourite lion of the king has his place within the enclosure. The tent of Pharaoh is seen in the middle of the camp, and near it the movable shrine of the great gods of Egypt. Above the whole is placed the inscription:

“This is the first legion of Amon, who bestows victory on King Ramses II. The Pharaoh is with it. It is occupied in pitching its camp”

Not far off the king sits on his throne, and receives the report of his generals, or gives the necessary orders to his followers. Important episodes are not wanting. Thus the Egyptians are dragging forward two foreigners, about whom the appended inscription thus informs us:

“This is the arrival of the spies of Pharaoh; they bring two spies of the people of the Khita before Pharaoh. They are beating them to make them declare where the King of Khita is”

There the chariots of war and the warriors of the king are passing in good order before Pharaoh: among them the legions of Amon, Ptah, Pra, and Sutekh. Then, after the gods, the hosts of the warriors are for the most part mentioned by name. Mercenary troops also are not wanting, for the Colchian Shardana, whose fine linen was well known to antiquity under the name of Sardonian, appear among the Egyptian allies. They are particularly distinguished by their helmets with horns and a ball-shaped crest, by their long swords and the round shields on their left arm, while then- right hand grasps a spear.

The host also of the Khita and of their allies are represented with a lively pictorial expression, for the artist has been guided by the intention of bringing before the eyes of the beholder the orderly masses of the Khita warriors, and the less regular and warlike troops of the allied peoples, according to their costume and arms. The Canaanites are distinguished in the most striking manner from the allies, of races unknown to us, who are attired with turban-like coverings for the head, or with high caps such as are still worn at the present day by the Persians. Short swords, lances, bows and arrows, form the weapons of the enemies of the Egyptians. We have already made the necessary observations on the warlike and truly chivalrous appearance of the Khita, and must now particularly mention the Tuhir, or “chosen ones” who follow in the train of their king. To these belong the Qel'au, or slingers, who attended close about the person of their prince.

Wonderfully rich is the great battle-picture which represents the fight of the chariots before Kadesh on the banks of the Orontes. While the gigantic form of Ramses, in the very midst of the mass of hostile chariots, performs deeds of the highest prowess, to the astonishment of the Egjrptians and of their enemies, his brave son, Prahiunamif, as the chief commander of the chariots, heads the attack on the chariots of the enemy. Several of his brothers, the children of Ramses, take part in the battle. The chariots of the Khita and their warriors are thrown into the river; and among them the King of Khilibu, whom his warriors have just dragged out of the water, and are endeavouring to restore to animation while the battle is raging. They hold their lord by the legs, with his head hanging down. The inscription by the side runs thus:

“This is the King of Khilibu. His warriors raise him up after the Pharaoh has thrown him into the water”

The battle, or rather its beginning, is described in the following manner in a short annexed inscription on the picture:

“When the king had halted, he sat down to the north- west of the town of Kadesh. He had come up with the hostile hosts of Khita, being quite alone, no other was with him. There were thousands and hundreds of chariots round about him on all sides.

He dashed them down in heaps of dead bodies before his horses. He killed all the kings of all the peoples who were allies of the king of Khita, together with his princes and elders, his warriors and his horses. He threw them one upon another, head over heels, into the water of the Orontes. There the King of Khita turned round, and raised up his hands to implore the divine benefactor”

The battle, or rather the butchery, seems to have been as little agreeable to the people of the Khita as to their lords, for:

“The hostile Khita speak, praising the divine benefactor, thus: “Give us freedom (literally, breath) from thy hand, O good king! Let us lie at thy feet; the fear of thee has opened the land of Khita. We are like the foals of mares, which tremble in terror at the sight of the grim lion.””

In the customary manner, above described, the inscriptions sing the praise of their king:

“The brave and bold conqueror of the nations, of the highest valour in the field of battle, firm on horseback, and glorious on his chariot, whom none can escape when he seizes his bow and arrows.”

- Ramses II and The Inferiority of Buildings and Sculptures.

Pharaoh Ramses VI

The inscriptions which mention him speak with a certain emphasis of his monuments in honor of the gods; but of these, those which have survived the ravages of time are reduced to a very small number. The most important edifice, and the most instructive on account of its representations and inscriptions, is his great and splendid tomb in the royal valley of Biban-el-Moluk. The tables of the hours, with the times of the risings of the stars, which formed the houses of the sun's course in the 36 or 37 weeks of the Egyptian year, will be for all times the most valuable contribution to astronomical science in the 12th century before our era. According to the researches of the French savant, Biot, whose labors in the department of astronomical calculation, in order to fix certain epochs of Egyptian history, are almost the only ones which have treated the subject with scientific accuracy, the drawing up of these tables of stars would fall in the reign of Ramses VI, in the year 1240 B.C. Our learned fellow countryman, Professor Lepsius, has, however, from his own point of view, sought to prove that herein lay an error and that, on the authority of the already cited table of hours in the grave of this king, the year 1194 is indicated as the only proper date. This last view does not difier very much from our calculation of 1166, deduced from the number of successive generations.

The foregoing inscription is found in a rock-tomb at Anibe, little visited by travelers, on the western bank of the Nile, opposite the village of Ibrim, about fifty kilometers (31 miles) north of Ibsambul. The owner of the tomb was an official of king Ramses VI, of the name of Penni, who, in his office as Adon or governor of the land of Wawa, died and was buried in this lonely region. The directions he left behind him, particularly with regard to the number of estates, the produce of which was devoted to the maintenance of the service of a statue of the king, hardly require an explanation. What makes the inscription particularly valuable is the designation of lands in those parts, and the offices connected with them. He himself, as we have already remarked, was Adon of Wawa. Another Adon is mentioned by the name of Meri. The sun-city of Pira is the ancient designation of the modern place Derr, or Dirr. The city mentioned by the name of Ama, in which a Nubian Horus enjoyed an especial worship, is very often named in the inscriptions, and seems to have been the ancient appellation of Ibrim. At Pira (Derr), in all probability, was the seat of the administration of the whole country of Wawa. The districts of Ahi and the gold land of Akita belonged to it, the revenues of which Penni had to collect and pay over to the Pharaoh. For his especial diligence in the fulfillment of his service to the court he was most warmly commended by the “King's son of Kush” of that time, whose name unfortunately is passed over in silence. On a royal visit, the king appears accompanied by the above-named Meri, who is also called “the superintendent of the temple”, to recommend his officials to the grace of Pharaoh. The statue of the royal lord, which had been set up, plays here an important part. His Majesty appears to have been much pleased with the services of his faithful servant, since he presented Penni with two silver vessels filled with precious ointments, as a reward of honor. Penni was certainly an artist, as is shown by the statue of Pharaoh, and his rock tomb adorned with rich sculptiu-es in stone, but especially by his office, mentioned in the inscriptions, of “master of the quarry”, besides that of a “superintendent of the temple of Horus”, the lord of the town of Ama.

These and similar statements are confirmed by the pictures and writings in his eternal dwelling, where he rests surrounded by his numerous relations. The several members of his family appear all to have held during their lifetime various offices in the Horus-city of Ama. I find among them a chief priest of Isis, whose son was the Amenemapi named in the inscription; also two treasurers of the king in Ama, a captain of the city of Ama, a priest and a scribe, while the women are mostly named as female singers of Amon or of Horus, the lord of the town of Ama.

When all historical data for depicting the life and deeds of a king fail, the family information contained in the tomb of a contemporary becomes of importance, even if it teaches us nothing else than that in the times of Ramses VI. the Egyptian dominion south of the tropic was still maintained, and that among the "King's sons of Kush" there were several Adons, corresponding to the districts of Kush, to whom again were subordinated the H'a, or governors of the towns.

Ramses II's Father, Sons and Daughters

It is scarcely worth while to relate what Ramses II did for the buildings of his father at Abydus. In the course of his long reign the king completed the temple. When the great building was completely finished, Ramses must have been already advanced in years, since not less than sixty sons and fifty-nine daughters of Ramses II greeted in their pictures the entrance of the pilgrims at the principal gate. In proportion as the works executed under Seti, the father, present to the astonished eyes of the beholder splendid examples of Egyptian architecture and sculpture, just so poor and inferior are the buildings which were executed under the reign of Ramses, and which bear the names of the Conquering King. The feeling also of gratitude towards his parent seems to have gradually faded away with Ramses, as years increased upon him, to such a degree, that he did not even deem it wrong to chisel out the names and memorials of his father in many places of the temple walls, and to substitute his own.

As we wish to leave it to our readers to form their own opinion on the boastful Ramses, we will turn to another field of his activity, and follow him, in the 5th year of his reign, to the stream of the Orontes in Syria, the waters of which washed the fortress of Kadesh on all sides.

Monuments of Ramses II

This is the king who above all others bears the name of honor of A-nakhtu "the Conqueror", and whom the monuments and the rolls of the books often designate by his popular names of Ses, Sestesu, Setesu, or Sestura, that is, the "Sethosis, who is also called Ramesses" of the Manethonian record, and the renowned legendary conqueror Sesostris of the Greek historians.

The number of his monuments, which still to the present day cover the soil of Egypt and Nubia in almost countless numbers, as the ruined remnants of a glorious past, or are daily brought to light from their concealment, is so great and almost countless, that the historian of his life and deeds finds himself in a difficulty where to begin, how to spin together the principal threads, and where to end his work. If to honor the memory of his father be the chief duty and the first work of a dutiful son, and we shall see that this was the persuasion of Ramses II, the beginning is made easy for us, and we shall honor the king's memory in the worthiest manner by using the very words of the great Sesostris about his first acts on entering upon his sole reign.

Temple of Ramses II in Abydos:

King Seti had died. The temple of Abydus stood half finished. The first royal care of Ramses was to complete the work, and in a long inscription on the left wall of the entrance, to record the intention with which his heart was charged, for the imitation of his contemporaries and of posterity.

The lord of the land arose as king, to show honor to his father, in his first year, on his first journey to Thebes. He had caused likenesses of his father, who was King Seti I, to be sculptured, the one in Thebes, the other in Memphis at the entrance gate, which he had executed for himself, besides those which were in Nifur, the necropolis of Abydus. Thus he fulfilled the wish which moved his heart, since he had been on earth, on the ground of the god Unnofer. He renewed the remembrance of his father, and of those who rest in the under world, in that he made his name to live, and caused his portraits to be made, and fixed the revenues set apart for his venerated person, and filled his house and richly decked out his altars. The walls were rebuilt, which had become old in his favorite house, the halls in his temple were rebuilt, its walls were covered, its gates were raised up; whatever had fallen into decay in the burial place of his father in the Necropolis was restored, and the works of art which had been carried away were brought back into the interior.

All this did the Conquering King Ramses II for his father Seti I. He established for him the sacrifices in rich profusion, in his name and in that of the earlier kings. His breast had a tender feeling towards his parent, and his heart beat for him who brought him up.

Menkaure (2532–2504 B.C.)

After Khafra's passage home to the realm of the dead, where the king of the gods, Osiris, held the sceptre, Men-kau-ra (Menkaure), Mencheres, ascended the throne. This is the Mykerinos, Mencherinos, about whom the Greek authors relate that he erected the third pyramid as a memorial of honour. It is called in the texts by the name of hir, that is, "the high one".

When Colonel Vyse found his way to the middle of the chamber of the dead and entered into the silent space of "Eternity", his eye discerned, as the last trace of Menkaura's place of burial, the wooden cover of the sarcophagus, and the stone coffin hewn out of one hard block, beautifully adorned outside in the style of a temple, according to the fashion of the masters of the old empire. The sarcophagus rests now at the bottom of the Mediterranean, the English vessel which was conveying it having been wrecked near Gibraltar. The cover, which was saved, thanks to the material of which it was composed, is now exhibited in the gallery of Egyptian antiquities in the British Museum. Its outside is adorned with a short text conceived in the following terms:

"Osiris, who hast become king of Egypt, Menkaura hving eternally, child of Olympus, son of Urania, heir of Kronos, over thee may she stretch herself and cover thee, thy divine mother, Urania, in her name as mystery of heaven. May she grant that thou shouldest be like God, free from all evils, King Menkaura, living eternally".

This prayer is of very ancient origin, for there are examples of it found on the covers of sarcophagi belonging to the dynasties of the ancient empire. The sense of it is full of significance. Delivered from mortal matter, the soul of the defunct king passes through the immense space of heaven to imite itself with God, after having overcome the evil which opposed it during its life on its terrestrial journey.

According to classic traditions King Mencheres enjoyed a very good reputation among pharaonic ancestors. He is described as a man distinguished for his justice and kindness, as also for his piety in regard to all that concerned the worship of the gods. For this reason the Egyptians after his death accorded him the honors of a god, by establishing a special worship dedicated to his memory. I do not know if we ought to attribute a great importance to this worship. The Egyptians rendered him the same honor which the kings, his predecessors, enjoyed after their decease.

For the monuments of the time of the building of the pyramids mention priests and prophets which were devoted to the service of Kheops, Chabryes, and other rulers, and who oflfered them sacrifices and attended to their service, after the "lord of the world" had left the hght and descended to the depth of his grave. As to the religious sentiments which we attribute to the Pharaoh Mencheres, it seems in fact that Mencheres Pius occupied himself during his Ufe by a certain predilection with sacred literature. The book called Pirem-lieru, the so-called "departure from day", recalls his memory particularly in gate 64.

According to the words of the text the author finishes the gate with this remark:

"This gate was discovered in the town of Hermopolis, engraved on a block of alabaster, and painted in blue color under the feet of this god. It was discovered at the epoch of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Mencheres the defunct, by the prince his son, Hortotef, when he undertook a journey to inspect the temples of Egypt. He brought it as a wonderful thing to the king, after having recognized the contents full of mystery".

Queen Nofretari

The name of the architect Ahmose has not been perpetuated on the walls of the Theban temples, but the rock tablets of Maassara down to the present hour have in the inscriptions preserved the memorial of him, and by the side of him the remembrance of his consort, the great heiress-queen NOFERT-ARI-AHMOSE, that is, "the beautiful companion of Ahmose." Not only the rocky caverns of Toora and Maassara, within sight of Memphis, the capital of the oldest dynasties, but also a number of public monuments in the interior of the dark chambers of the tombs of the Theban Necropolis, have clearly preserved the name of this queen, surrounded by laudatory inscriptions.

Long after her decease this great ancestress of the new empire was venerated as a divine being, and her image was placed as an equal among the eternal inhabitants of the Egyptian heaven. In the united assembly of the sainted first kings of the new empire, Nofert-ari-Ahmose, the divine spouse of Ahmose, sits enthroned at the head of all the Pharaonio pairs, and before all the royal children of their race, as the specially venerated ancestress and founder of the eighteenth dynasty. As such she was called "the daughter, sister, wife, and mother of a king," besides her title of "wife of the God Amon," which expression designated the chief priestess of the tutelary God of Thebes (but not more than that).

On several monuments the beautiful companion of Ahmose is represented with a black skin, and the conclusion has hence been drawn that she had to boast or to be ashamed of a negro origin. In spite of the intelligent surmises which have been put forward, on the side of the learned, to discover high state reasons from the color of her skin, namely, that a treaty concluded by the Pharaoh Ahmose with the neighbouring negro peoples for a common effort to drive out the shepherd kings was sealed by this marriage, it seems to me that, in this supposition, two points of view have been entirely neglected. First, the dark color is found not infrequently employed in the paintings in the tombs of the kings at Thebes, so as to offer by the side of the other brightly coloured pictures of the Pharaohs an evident allusion to their stay in the dark night of the grave.

This intention of the painter would appear all the more probable in the case of our raven-coloured queen, as she is not on every occasion represented black, but sometimes she appears on the walls of the tombs at Thebes with a yellow color to her skin like all Egyptian women. In the second place, the negroes with their queen, allied to them (as is said) in race, owed small thanks to the house of Egypt, since Ahmose, after conquering his enemies in the north, immediately turned his arms against the brethren and the people of his own wife, by whose help alone, it is supposed, he had been able to obtain a victory over his hereditary enemy.

We must therefore consider, and for the sake of King Ahmose we must wish it to be so, that Nofertari, belonging to the Egyptian stock, represented an heiress, to whom had descended by birth and by law the right of succession to" the Theban throne. As the husband of such an heiress Ahmose only occupied the second place by her side, and it was reserved to the son of them both, according to the laws of the Egyptian succession, to bear the sceptre as the legitimate full king over both the great divisions of the empire.

Ramses V (c. 1148-1144 BC)

Ramses V the son of Ramses IV (1151–1145). He came to the throne as the fourth pharaoh of the 20th dynasty in the New Kingdom period. In his reign the power of the priests of Amun was increased. he reigned for four years and died with a virus disease discovered in the face of his mummy which staying in Cairo Museum.

The Death of Ramses V:

In 1888 French Egyptologist Georges Daressy discovered the tomb of Ramses V, the fourth pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, while excavating in the Valley of the Kings. Archaeologists later determined that Ramses V had died in 1141 BC at the age of 35 after reigning only four years. His mummy provided an explanation for Ramses’ short tenure. It revealed a face covered with pustules characteristic of smallpox.

The Wilbour Papyrus (Gardiner 1948; cf. Katary 1989), dealing with land tenancy in Middle Egypt dunng the reign of Ramses V.

The great Wilbour papyrus in the Brooklyn Museum, dated in year 4 of Ramses V reign gives an account of taxing. Its main text records the measurement and assessment of fields extending from near Crocodilonpolis (Medinet el-Fayyum) southwards to a little short of the modern town of El-Minya, a distance of some 90 miles. Taxes were calculated, in part, from flood levels indicated by marks on stone building lining the river., the Nilometres.

How the king infected with the smallpox?

During the New Kingdom (18-20th dynasties), when the Egyptian Empire expanded to its greatest geographical extent by far, with extensive conquests and expeditions in Africa and Asia. And its believed the smallpox had spread during this extent of the kingdom.

And exactly during the reign of Ramses V, Egypt was in a civil war and was attacked by enemies from the north; if the pustular eruption of Ramses V was from smallpox, it could represent a smallpox outbreak from imported cases because of war rather than regional endemic disease. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that only three mummies in that period had similar lesions.

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