Ramses II (1279-1212 B.C)

Statues of Ramses II at Abu Simbel
Ramses II (or Ramses 2), the great pharaoh in the world, ruled for 67 years during the 13th Century BC. He was a king of the Nineteenth Dynasty. When the young Ramses came to power, 1300 years had already passed since the time of the Fourth Dynasty, the dynasty which is traditionally related with the famous pyramids and Sphinx of the Giza (although much evidence suggests that they were made many years before even the first historical dynasty).

If, nowadays, In the age of technology, at the end of the twentieth century, one were to exact the average person to name an Egyptian pharaoh, the reply would probably be, "King Tutankhamon." This, of course, is due to the highly unique discover by one of the great scholars, Howard Carter in 1922 of the child-kings small but almost whole tomb.

Tutankhamon died at age 17. Outside of the contents of king Tut's tomb, little is identified of his reign and his life, and he is not thought to be a pharaoh of major importance. Returning to our (name that pharaoh) question, if the average person were to be able to name a second pharaoh, it would almost surely be Ramses II. Even if little importance is currently placed on knowledge of ancient history, captions of this great ruler yet live on.

Some may remember him from Shellys famous, if historically wide, poem, "Ozymandias." Some link him with "Pharaoh" from the Biblical story of the Exodus. A series of best marketing novels has recently been written set on the life of Ramses II. In The End, the astute history student will love that Ramses II, popularly known as "Ramses the Great," established more temples, statues and obelisks than any other pharaoh of Ancient Egypt and in the world.

Cartouche of pharaoh Ramses II
Cartouche of pharaoh Ramses II

Ramses place in Ancient Egyptian History (the period of the power)

In an effort to handle the 3000 years of Egyptian history which includes 170 or so pharaohs, Egyptologists have widespread Ancient Egypt in Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom, with intermediate periods in between. The system of dynasties dates back to the third century BC, when the High Priest of Heliopolis, Manetho, defined the basic Egyptian chronology yet in use today.

The kings of the New Kingdom were kings of a big nation, and many of their tremendous works, temples and fortresses are still extant today as testament. It was a power period for Ancient Egypt.

Ramses came to the throne about 46 years after the death of Tutankhamon who didn't nowadays any service to Egypt except his continued tomb. Tutankhamons reign marked the end of what is identified as the Amarna Interlude, a sixteen-year period of rotation in Ancient Egypt when the religious passionate Akhenaten mandated that his "personal god," Aten, be the only one worshiped. Akhenaten moved the capital sunk into a desert city that was broken after the traditional religion and administration were reconstructed.

Afterward Tutankhamon, a series of 3 military leaders and government officials in turn base the throne. Their primary role was to reinstate the ancient ways and to see that no foreign countries took vantage of the temporary disorganization. The last of these, Ramses I, was the first of the Nineteenth Dynasty, and the first of the supposed Ramesside Period. He was the grandfather of king Ramses II.

Gerf Hussein, a temple dedicated to Ramses II
By the historical view, the New Kingdom pharaohs look to have experienced more attacks by foreign invaders than their predecessors. The Libyans, the Syrians, the Nubians and the Hittites alternately occupied the borders of Egypt. The most famous war that Ramses undertook, and indeed one of the about famous in ancient ages was the Battle of Kadesh.

In Year 4 of King Ramses reign, the Pharaoh was forewarned of an enormous coalition of forces being headed by the Hittites. In the spring of Year 5 Ramses saw an army of 20000 men and big north to contend with the force. The Egyptian forces were divided into four divisions: Amon, Re, Ptah and Seth. The Hittite army was much larger, 37000 men, plus 2500 chariots, and due to faulty word that King Ramses received, had the element of surprise.

The Hittites power rounded, their chariots cut off Ramses from his men, and confusion reigned among the Egyptians. The young Ramses pressed Amon for help. According to the dedications, Amon himself incarnated in Ramses and the Pharaoh began to rally his troops, single-handedly removing many Hittites himself.

In fact, Peace was eventually offered by the Hittite king. Today, we know from a variety of sources that the Battle of Kadesh was a historical case. However, it is also open that the event was considered to be symbolic and didactic, and was included at many temples. It was even applied in the education of the youth.

Four years historians have supposed that Merneptah, Ramses son and replacement, was the (Pharaoh) referred to in the Bible. This was due to the fact that one of the only known concerned references to the issue was base on his (Victory) stele: Israel is listed as one of the conquered lands. Currently, still, scholars favor Ramses II as the Biblical (Pharaoh) due to chronological considerations. It is hoped that evidence will be discover in KV5 that will shed extra light on the matter.

Ramses II knew and Focused in building cities and other monuments. He established new capital in Delta called Pi-Ramses. It is build over the rocks of Avaris (the out capital of the Hyksos enemy).

Maybe Bows like those which used in the battle of Kadesh.

The temple of Ramses II in Sohag city in Upper Egypt, On the north side of the temple of king Seti I. The tourist can travel to Sohag from Cairo by train or by air.