Ramesses XI (1098–1070)

The reign of Ramesses XI:

In all probability not really the king of 2 lands – Egypt was pretty broke up by this period. Almost envoys sent to Thebes by the pharaoh to stabilize affairs tended to take hold as rulers. The (Year of the Hyena) – shortage – on his rule.

Vicereine of Nubia, Panhesy, abutted north with Nubian flocks, to restore govern in Thebes – which may have been on the pharaoh behalf, or on his possess. Panhesy usurped the office of (Overseer of Granaries), which intensified into civil war in the 17-19th year of Ramessess rule. The high Priest of Amun was besieged at Medinet Habu.

Took hold after a detectable rise in power of the Priests of Thebes, believably not a combined Egypt to his ascending.

The last pharaoh of the Rameside line and the concluding ruler of Dynasty twenty, Rameses XI reigned over a seriously attenuated country. Tomb lootings were rife, a series of abject Niles caused famine, and civil war belched in Thebes.

The central capital of Rameses XI:

Rameses XI’s central capital was situated at Tanis, in the central Delta, and power at Thebes appears to have been assumed by the priests of the temple of Amon at Karnak. At last, Rameses XI baffled his already-weakened power (though he held his royal championships) at the High Priest of Amon, Herihor, reigned southern Egypt and Smendes, maybe his son, reigned northward.

KV4 is ascribed to Rameses XI, but the tomb was never completed and the pharaoh’s mummy has never been discovered.

Ramesses XI was the 10th and the concluding king of the 20th Dynasty also the New Kingdom. The ruled of this king was a time period of agitation. Ramesses was not a very gumptious or critical ruler. The vicereine of Nubia, Panehsi, broke down from Elephantine to Thebes to attempt to stop the agitation that was bobbing up from contention over the area that was between the high priest of Amon and other people.

At the like time there was a famine and was anticipated (the Year of the Hyena). Hrihor was departed in Thebes by Panehsi to ascendance the affairs on that point. He soon accepted the character of the high priest of Amon and finally got the vizier also. This was the case of the eventual fall of Panehsi. Panehsi rebelled and arrested Egypt's supremacy in Nubia.

Hrihor administrated the affairs of Egypt although Ramesses XI rested in privacy. Upon the death of Ramesses, Hrihor and Smendes carved up Egypt between themselves. Ramesses was technically Pharaoh of Egypt till his death, just Hrihor was the ruler of Upper Egypt for all hardheaded aims. Ramesses' death branded the close of the 20th Dynasty and the New Kingdom. His tomb is placed in the Valley of the Kings.

Ramesses XI Monuments signs:

Tomb of Ramesses XI (KV4) at The Valley of the kings;

- Afford since antiquity (though not now) and arrests Greek, Latin, Demotic, Egyptian, Coptic and French and English graffiti on the surrounds. Applied as a workshop on the twenty-first dynasty by Pinudjesm to strip the funerary gear from KV20, KV34 and VK38. when actuating the mummies.

- Abidance and stalls in the Christian period. It was applied as storage room by Carter and dining hall although he worked on the tomb of King Tut.

- No attest of water flooding, there's a break between the columns and roof - believably a result of the dehydration of the limestone. An ancient amend was made to the debut, with a lot of beams in situ to abide the ceiling. There are big breaks in the upper surrounds of the corridor and the plaster has accrued.

- Close royal tomb to be constructed in the valley of the kings. Differently, not so charging.

- Corridor followed by a absorb descending enactment with a 2nd and 3rd corridor before the ritual well (unadorned and unfinished). Abided by by a pillared hall and a incline to the unfinished burying chamber. The pillars inside the burial chamber are rectangular, not feather and the ceiling is domed.

- No roadblocks in the tomb, but a lot of pivot holes for doorways.

- Shaft inside the burial chamber [14 x 10 ft] consecutive down besides the common sarcophagus.

- Only medallions are on the doorway between the becharm and 1st corridor.

- The first corridor, besotted in yellow, has abstracts only (in red, so no flush the “adjusted” ones).

- Pinudjem amended the tomb, and it was accepted he intended to be entombed here. Intrusive details from his refurbishment and hiving up were discovered. Details admit a blue faience vessel with the Horus call of Tuthmosis and Ramesses II, begilded gesso from the coffin of Thuthmosis III, funerary statues of Tuthmosis III, breaks up of the coffin of Hatshepsut, and barbs of Ramesses IV.

- Intrusive buryings, also, evidenced by the rests of a twenty-second dynasty coffin and bones of 3 bodies. They were discovered in the shaft of the burying chamber. Copts as well absorbed the tomb.

Related Posts:

Ramesses VIII (1133–1126)
Ramesses IX (1126–1108)
Ramesses X (1108–1098)

Ramesses X (1108–1098)

The reign of Ramesses X:

Workers came about affect for lack of earningses during his rule.

Most nothing is acknowledged of Rameses X, who reigned for maybe 3 years, save for some brief acknowledgments in texts at Karnak. It's conceivable that KV18 was abbreviate for this swayer.

Ramesses X was the 9th king of the 20th Dynasty. On his rule the workers advanced strike for earningses not paid. There are few perfect memorials of Ramesses that have came through. He left hand a tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

Burial Position:

Rock-cut tomb at Thebes in The Valley of the Kings - tomb 18. Ramesses X mummy has never been discovered.

Ramesses X Monuments signs:

Ramesses X tomb (KV18) in The Valley of the Kings:

- In the south-west wadi

- Bare and only recently absolved. Brought down by Pococke in 1700s, just no funerary material has been ascertained and the foundation alluviations found by Carter weren't autographed. The MISR project absolved the tomb in 1998 and bears on work.

- An entrance and two corridors. It was open on antiquity before being fulfilled with mud and debris.

The frontage is very big, some 10cm wider than the former king. It's simple, with little gradient. A carved up staircase and an initial corridor. The rulers of ancient Egypt names is on the doorposts and breaks.

- First corridor was barred by the electric lighting facilities for the Valley, which were established in 1904. He had the walls glossed over and a level base constructed for the begetting equipment. He added up holding walls and roofing a few of which rest today. The corridor was primitively in full cut and adorned.

- He 2nd corridor was barred by a modern wall the has been bared away. There are approximate steps to the deserted workface. The ceiling has broke.

- Brief decoration remains. Owed to water flooding the becharm movie of the king kneel on either face of the sun disk is baffled. Most of the cataplasm and paint have dropped away. Only a small assign of the left wall remains, along with modern European grafitti dating back 1623—1905. Other badly besmirched scenes have left deciphers. No medal sin the 2nd corridor.

Related Posts:

Ramesses VII (1133–1126)
Ramesses VIII (1133–1126)
Ramesses IX (1126–1108)

Ramesses IX (1126–1108)

The reign of Ramesses IX:

Ramesses IX the king of the 20th Dynasty. Judicial documents record pursuance of tomb robbers accompanying a breakdown so at Thebes.

On his 18 year reign, Rameses IX brought in a number of successful tries to restore Egypt’s power and wealth. The texts of his time mention to travels in Asia and Nubia. He as well ordered copious constructing activity at Karnak (in Luxor) and Heliopolis.

It was on Rameses IX’s rule that tomb robbing in the Valley of the Kings got so embarrassingly basic that an review of the royal tombs was accomplished. The consequence of the investigating was that a amount of thieves were apprehended and tried (in renal years nine and sixteen) and the mummies of many royal mummies were acted from their vandalised tombs to TT 320, a belittled tomb in the Dayr al Bahri cirque. They rested there till they were discovered and fleeced by thieves at the close of the 19th century.

Rameses IX was entombed in KV6, placed in the centre of the Valley of the Kings.

His mummy was absented from the tomb in the Dynasty twenty-one reign of Pinedjem II and expanded the Dayr al Bahri hoard.

Ramesses IX was the 8th pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty. He's believed to have ruled for about 17 or more years. On his reign, there was a dirt in which the tombs in the Theban burial ground were being fleeced. There were as well campaigns by Libyan brigands. He had a son, Montuherkhopshef, who didn't live to follow Ramesses. His grave was discovered in the Valley of the Kings.

Burial Position:

Scandal of the grave robbers in Thebes on his reign. His grave is a rock cut grave in Thebes (in The Valley of the Kings - tomb 6).

Ramesses IX Monuments signs:

The tomb of Prince Menthuher-Khepshef:

* Prince Menthuher-Khepshef the son of Ramses IX

* This tomb discovered in 1817

* Primitively intended for Ramses VIII but absorbed by among the princes alternatively

* Very astray opening with bemock door, across 3.6 meter

* Amidst the most technically fantabulous in the Valley of the Kings

* KV6 Tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

* Among the last pharaohs of the twenty dynasty.

* Initial aspects of sunken alleviation get flat paintings

* Abused corridor

* The burial chamber of the tomb is well cognised for (Book of Night) in yellow on the dark backcloth

* the tomb sarcophagus is escaping

* Beginning tomb bumped with the valley.

* Bare tomb, though the artwork is concerning.

* Afford since antiquity and visited by a lot of ancient tourists – 46 of which left dedications in the tomb. It was researched by Henry Salt , and was absolved in 1888 through George Daressy

* Corridor with treads on either face to a true corridor with two extensions (one never accomplished), abided by by a 2nd and third corridor and antechamber. There's no ritual barb A four-pillard hall leads to a abruptly corridor and the burial room, which has no extensions.

* It's conceivable the curial chamber was entailed to be additional corridor, and only convinced when the king died. There's a two-tiered pit in the floor, just no sarcophagus.

* Headers have the criterion sun-disk-Isis-Nephthys. The art is alike to Ramesses VI while the corridors have the Litany or Re alternatively of the Book of Gates. The 1st corridors artwork were acted while hw as live, and the lesser prime work was acted afterward.

* Burial chamber has a appraised ceiling with Nut and enactments from the the Book of the Night and the Book of the Day.

* Ramesses IX mummy was discovered in the 1881 Dier-el-Bahri cache, in a coffin primitively prepared for Neskhons, married woman of Pinudjem II

Related Posts:

Ramesses IV (1151-1145)
Ramesses VII (1133–1126)
Ramesses VIII (1133–1126)

Ramesses VIII (1133–1126)

The reign of Ramesses VIII:

Rameses VIII reigned for less than a year. He's acted only once, in a advance of princes in the perfect memorial temple of King Ramesses III at Madinat Habu, where his anatomy was fall back with the royal uraeus and additional royal raiment.

Rameses VIII may have been a late son among the kings of twenty Dynasty, but there appears little opportunity that he's to be described as a son of Pharaoh Rameses III, as well known by the call Sethherkhepeshef Mery-Amen, who was entombed in the Valley of the Queens in (QV43).

No tomb is acknowledged for Rameses VIII; just some Egyptologists think that KV19, applied for the burial of Prince Mentuherkhepeshef, could have primitively been designated for him.

King Ramesses VIII was the 7th king of the 20th Dynasty and was believably Ramesses III's son. Ramesses VIII mummy has never been discovered and all that rests of his rule is a dedication at Medinet Habu and some plaques. His grave was discovered but was very humble.

Burial Position:

The Burial position is Unknown, but tour Egypt tells ‘found but humble’. The mummy of Ramesses VIII has never been determined.

Ramesses VIII Monuments signs:

The tomb of Ramesses VIII (KV1) at The Valley of the Kings:

* Afford since antiquity – leastways Romans Greek periods.

* Referred in the last nineteenth century, but no info about the acquitting earlier than 1906. It was as well excavated afterward 1952 by the Egyptian ancientnesses dept.

* Acted by Edwin Brock as 1984, and refurbishment by the SCA in 1994 (which covered some ancient graffiti with cataplasm to fill breaks, and so on) No base deposits were detected.

* First corridor has a lot of breaks, but the plaster appears integral.

* Much littler tomb than his predecessors, with just one corridor and a burial chamber, with an bare room beyond. The delicately quality of the alleviation indicate that a belittled tomb was designed, since it was empathised that Ramesses VII might not have many time to accomplished it.

* Decorations alike to KV9 (Ramesses VI), there are some fluctuations: Osiris is much boasted here.

* A few of the blue pigments have attenuate/fallen away, just the outer lintel was adorned with the sun disk and arrests a scarab, flanked through Isis and Nephthys.l On the left side of the corridor, the king bids Re-Horakhty-Atyn-Kkhepri, on the right side to Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. Additional in are chapters of the Book of Caverns and Book of Gates.

* There's no well-room or anteroom – the corridor leads consecutive to the sarcophagus room. The sarcophagus is adorned with aspects of the Book of Aker (the doubled headed lion acting the horizon) Nut braces the ceiling of the room.

* A belittled unfinished chamber with a corner is beyond, with the header display the Braque of the sun with baboon of the (Book of Gates).

* Sarcophagus cut at once to the floor of the chamber and a rock covering was localized over the hole. It's shaped alike a cartouche and adorned with anatomies of Nephthys, Selkis and the 4 sons of Horus in green blusher.

* The tomb was cycled/recycled by Copts.

* Mummy hasn't yet been discovered. He perhaps one of the unknown bodies from the DB320 hoard.

Related Posts:

Setnakht (1185—1070)
Ramesses IV (1151-1145)
Ramesses VII (1133–1126)

Ramesses VII (1133–1126)

The reign of Ramesses VII:

Nothing is acknowledged of this son of Rameses VI exclude that he reigned for 7 years of economic asperity.

King Ramesses VII is believably the son of Ramesses VI and was the 6th Pharaoh of the 20th Dynasty. He constructed a tomb in the Valley of the Kings, but at that place no other monuments signs that he constructed. He did have a son that didn't live to follow him.

Burial Position:

Rock-cut tomb in Thebes (The Valley of the Kings tomb 1). King Rameses VII was buried in (KV1) but no mummy has been discovered that can be distinguished as his.

Ramesses VII Monuments signs:

His tomb in The Valley of the Kings:

- Afford for centuries, allots of Romans Greek and graffiti

- Bright paint colors are ascribable refurbishment.

- It's reopened around 1995

- Arrests an curious figure buried by cartouches.

- Is not visited a lot.

- Afterward style, horizontal grave

- Described with aspects from the (Book of Gates)

- Sky and configurations on ceiling, and calender of banquets

Related Posts:

KV2, The tomb of Ramesses IV
Setnakht (1185—1070)
Ramesses IV (1151-1145)

Ramesses IV (1151-1145)

The reign of Ramesses IV:

Ramesses IV directed 8368 workmen (admitting 2000 soldiers) to wadi hammamet to beat stone for statues. Soldiers were to hold the workmen, not champion them. He doubled up the work forc at Deir el Medina in Luxor. He may have domiciled over the "Harem Conspiracy" courtyard

King Rameses IV, the son of King Rameses III, came up to the throne chair on a period while Egypt had come down on hard times. There is no certify that he assayed, or was capable, to bushel its wealth and outside authority. Texts of his rule speak of social agitation, rising crime, and economic decay.

Even so, Rameses IV did order copious work in various stone and turquoise quarries, and he constructed pluses to temples at and Thebes of Egypt , Heliopolis and Abydos raised a lot of statues at that place.

His possess memorial temple rested near Dayr al Madinah. His tomb, KV2, was entrenched the Valley of the Kings. Afterward, in Dynasty twenty-one, his body was acted with many other royal mummies to KV35 for keeping.

King Ramesses IV was the son of King Ramesses III. His rule endured no more than 6 years. He did endure the harem confederacy which was contrived to spoil his arrogates to the throne chair. He based a document in the grave of his father which is now called the Papyrus Harris I, that affords an complicate account of the rule of Ramesses III. Pharaoh Ramesses IV is believed to have been in his mid-forties when he got king. There are 2 stele that were discovered at Abydos by Mariette that exalt his piety and exceeding devotion to the deities. The quarrying of the rock is told to have convoluted over than 8000 people.

Ramesses IV did the high-priest Mont , as well as other adequate to officials and scribes to bring down the locate. There were 5000 soldiers that were most expected sent to haul the vast stones across the rough desert routes. He's as well known for the continuance of the Khonsu at Karnak, which was started by his father, Ramesses III.

A temple at Asasif, which is on the westerly bank of the River Nile at Thebes, was put up by Ramesses. Ramesses' grave was discovered in the Valley of the Kings and his mummy is at present in the Cairo Museum. The rests indicate that Ramesses was a belittled man who was bare, had a long nose and fine teeth.

Burial Position:

king Ramesses IV rock cut grave in Thebes (Valley of the Kings Tomb 2). His Body ascertained in the royal cache in tomb KV35 and isn't in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo Egypt.

Ramesses IV Monuments:

Almost Monuments of Ramesses IV in KV2 Tomb (Ther Valley of the Kings): there's a lot of the appeal of King Ramesses VI, and lower crowded. Besides pollyannaish colors, just poor carving, abundant Greek and Coptic graffito and ping granite sarcophagus

Big tomb, but very bare. Hived up the mummy in the grave of Amenophis II. The archetype plans, absorbed on papyrus papers, are in the Museum of Turin.

Dissimilar from almost royal tombs, as Ramesses IV carried the throne chair afterward his father’s assassination, in a period time economic decay.

- Was acknowledged early one, and applied as a kind of “hotel” by betimes explorers. It was besides a Coptic Christian abode and was visited often in antiquity. Heaps of Greek and Coptic graffito

- 2 sketched contrives of the toms are acknowledged, the most accomplished and famous are in the Turin papyri.

- Very fiddling slope from the first depart of the tomb to the rear. Becharm has split stairses on either face of a ramp, affording to a first, 2nd, and 3rd corridors. The concluding corridor directs to a small antechamber and so to the burial chamber. There are some belittled annexes off the burial chamber, but additional than that, no sidelong annexes in the grave. The corridors are vast – some 10ft astray and 15 feet high, much bigger than normal.

- The frontage has the kings enthronement scenes and the corridors bear the Litany of Re. The cap is vultures, falcons, and flew scarabs.

- 3rd corridor has scenes of the Book of Caverns with stars on the ceiling, which later gets domed.

- The belittled burial chamber is closely filled up with the sarcophagus – it is outstandingly large. The chamber is adorned with the 2nd, 3rd, and fourth hours of the Book fo Gates. The ceiling is adorned with two big paintings of Nut besides the constellations, and aspects from the book of the dark.

- No mainstays in the tomb. No aspects from the Amduat.

- Fiddling funerary gear found, although the sarcophagus was barged in and left ajar. Nine foundation alluviations

Related Posts:

KV1, The tomb of Ramesses VII
KV2, The tomb of Ramesses IV
Setnakht (1185—1070)

Setnakht (1185—1070)

The reign of Setnakht:

The rule of Setnakht is indisposed known, the primary sources being the Elephantine Stela. Papyrus and Harris Papyrus Harris delineates the time of Sethnakht’s access as a period of afflict and confusion. Without doubt he was amplifying, but Setnakht does arrogate to have “cleared out the usurper” to the throne chair and, on a lower than 3 yearlong reign, to have bushelled law and dictate to Egypt.

When he broke, he was buried in KV14, the tomb applied by Tausert, which Setnakht had blew up. Declining to acknowledge the premature 2 pharaohs, the first pharaoh of the twentieth Dynasty dated the starting of his rule to that of King Seti II. He believably usurped the throne chair of Tworse, Seti II's widow, and afterward queen-pharaoh. He was at an boosted age when he claimed the throne but cared to achieve peace and order in a abruptly period. His tomb wasn't discharged when he died then he was localised in that Tworse's.

His coffin was discovered in Amenophis II's tomb but the mummy hasn't been discovered. Setakht was the father of king Ramesses III and the conserve of Ramesses's mother, Tiyemerenese.

Burial Position:

His tomb: Rock cut tomb at Thebes (the Valley of the Kings (in Luxor) tomb 14). He entombed in a tomb primitively bug for Twosret in. Might have arrogated the tomb himself as his original tome, KV11, came through to KV10 and was deserted. Or, his son, Ramesses III, acquired the tomb for his father. Setnakht’s Coffin determined in 1898 in the royal hoard in KV35. His body could be that of the undid man in a wooden boart in this tomb.

Setnakht Monuments:

Primitively helf wife (Tausert), arrogated by Sethnakht, who reigns 1200-1085 B.C.E. Sethnakht master tomb is at present Ramesses III. 112 meter long. Male gods bear female names, displaying that the tomb was arrogated by Sethnakht. This burial chamber has a barrel-domed ceiling. A granite sarcophagus is smashed.

Related Posts:

Ramses I (1315-1313 B.C.)
Ramses II (1279-1212 B.C)
Ramses III

KV2, The tomb of Ramesses IV

KV2 or The tomb of Ramesses IV Heqamaatre, is deposited in a big modern courtyard close the becharm to the Valley of the Kings and has been open as antiquity. Coptic graffiti evokes that it was reprocessed as a Christian church or abode on the fifth century AD. An ancient design of the tomb absorbed on papyrus is right away in the Turin Egyptian Museum and it's apparent of this that the original design was for a bigger tomb which was believably amended at the decease of the king. The consequences of this abbreviation were that there's no traditional pillared hall ahead the burial chamber.

Plan of KV2

The tomb's architecture is fairly distinctive of royal Ramesside style with a stairs and ramp coming to the main entrance portal site. On the outer header to the first corridor is the associate disc arresting a scarab and ram-headed god Amun, flanked from Isis and Nephthys, with a alike depiction on the southerly wall of the first lightly sloping corridor. On the antonym wall are texts of the ‘Litany of Ra’. The pharaoh’s names look between the first and 2nd corridors, as well as on the cap which is painted with flew scarabs and marauders.


The 2nd corridor brilliantly exemplifies many scenes with daemons or underworld spirits of the ‘Litany of Ra’ on it’s cream-coloured surrounds. The ceiling as well shows the equal text.

The names of the king and a winged disc look in the entrance to the 3rd corridor and the walls display, for the fist time, aspects (of the first and second part) from the ‘Book of Caverns’. There are 2 niches at the far closing of the surrounds. The star-painted ceiling of the 3rd corridor is domed and also exposes the king’s cartouches.

A lot of steeply aslant ramp leads to an antechamber "well-room" before the burying chamber. The outer header of the antechamber is adorned with flew uraei and a flew disc and the walls of the chamber describe passages of (the Book of the Dead) (on the left hand) and the ‘Negative Confession’ (on the right hand).

The sarcophagus chamber was believably originally designated to be a pillared hall which would have anteceded the real burial chamber. Since the plan was abridged, no pillars were abbreviate and a sarcophagus "pit" was buried into the floor. The monolithic red granite outer sarcophagus which was discovered in the tomb, was barged in antiquity, but has been bushelled and can be ascertained in the burial chamber. The surrounds walls of the burial chamber exemplify the first four partitions of the ‘Book of Gates’ and choices of texts from the (Amduat). The vaulted ceiling exposes astronomical aspects from the (Books of the Heavens) which puts back the further traditional texts of earliest tombs. On the southerly half, the sky-goddess Nut is abided by Shu, deity of the air and alight, with a broadcast of the decans at the side. Nut as well stretches concluded the northern face of the ceiling with other astronomics bods.

A additional corridor on the far side the burial chamber has the initial texts of the (Book of Caverns) on its surrounds walls, but this is artlessly painted. This chamber affords into three extensions. The surrounds walls in the rooms in the south and north have mummiform characterisations of the king, maybe illustrating his ushabtis, whilst the room at the close of the corridor show additional funerary objects (couch, bureaux and canopic jars).

The consistence of Ramesses IV was discovered among those royal mummies in tomb KV35.

The tomb of Ramesses IV is presently open to visitors. Tickets for the Valley of the Kings cost EGP eighty for 3 tombs and can be frequented the gate.

Related Posts:

Where was Khufu Buried
The Valley of the Kings, Tombs List
KV1, The tomb of Ramesses VII

KV1, The tomb of Ramesses VII

KV1 or The tomb of Ramesses VII Usermaatre Setepenre Meryamun can be ascertained at the becharm to the Valley of the Kings a bit way back of the road. Like a few of the other Ramesside tombs it has been afford since ancientness. The tomb experienced some refurbishment and cleanup by the SCA in 1994, and a new itinerary was assign in place.

Though KV1 is Ramesside in plan, and alike in decoration thereto of Ramesses VI, it is a much humbler tomb than those of the king’s late antecedents, belonging of just one corridor and a burying chamber.

Plan of KV1

The outer header was decorated with the traditional sundisc arresting the scarab and flanked by Isis and Nephthys beneath the pharaoh’s names. In the astray corridor, the fine caliber alleviation decoration is strange – in situ of the Litany of Ra there are 2 aspects. On the left-hand face, the king is ascertained before an altar bidding to the falcon-headed solar deity Ra-Horakhty-Atum-Khepri, and on the right ahead Ptah-Sokar-Osiris with a hymn to the deities of the Underworld.


Additional along, the initial scene and first class from the ‘Book of Gates’ (the barque of Ra being came through the Underworld) can be ascertained on the left, with the first aspects from the ‘Book of Caverns’ (the deities paying homage to the anxious sun-god) on the right. On either face the king is described as an Osiris, being distilled by the Iun-Mutef priest.

The cap of the corridor is decorated with marauders and the king’s cartouches.

The corridor leads consecutive into a sarcophagus hall without a well-room or anteroom. It's evoked that the tomb was designed in its abbreviated form since the king’s rule was belike to be abruptly. On the outer header is the common winged disc. The becharm wall exemplifies 2 goddesses; on the right a complex goddess Sekhmet-Bubastis-Wert-Hekau and on the left-hand, Wert-Hekau (Great of Magic) to each one cladding the door.

On the surrounds of the sarcophagus hall are aspects from the ‘Book of Aker’ (the double-headed lion which represents the horizon) and the (Book of the Earth). The northerly wall describes Osiris as (Chief of the Westerners). An astronomics ceiling boasts the goddess Nut debasing across the edens with the decans and configurations.

On the far side the burial chamber a belittled chamber with a corner. It’s outer walls display the king cladding the door on each face and offering to expressions of Osiris on the inner surrounds. The wall above the niche exemplifies the barque of the sun arresting baboons from the (Book of Gates) affirmed by djed-pillars on the faces of the niche.

The sarcophagus was cut direct into the floor of the tomb and over this core out was localised a monolithic stone addressing, decorated with the common engraved anatomies of Isis, Nephthys, Selkis and the 4 Sons of Horus. This is allay in situ, with an affording at its foot wherever the body of the pharaoh was absented. The mummy of Ramesses VII hasn't yet been discovered.

The grave of Ramesses VII is presently open to visitors. Fines for the King’s Valley cost EGP 80 for 3 tombs and can be frequented the gate.

Related Posts:

Bakare (Bikka)

Where was Khufu Buried
The Valley of the Kings, Tombs List

The Valley of the Kings, Tombs List

The Valley of the Kings was the royal burial ground for 62 Pharaohs, and is placed on the west bank at Luxor. The only becharm to this position was a long narrow curving way. This was a secret localise, wherever sentries were laid at the entrance of the Valley, also as along the top of the hills, in the desires of admonishing tomb robbers, who had in the past despoiled all royal tombs, letting in the treasures of the Pyramids. Some larcenies were believably carefully planned, but other larcenies were gad of the moment, as when an earliest tomb was by chance discovered while abbreviating a new one and workmen capitalised of the opportunity. This may have befell when KV 46 was discovered during the abbreviating of KV 4 or KV 3 contiguous. The tombs in the Valley ambit from a simple mark (e.g. KV 54), to a tomb with over 121 corridors and chambers (KV 5).

The Valley of the Kings Tombs:

KV 1
Possessor: Ramesses VII
Dynasty: 20

KV 2
Possessor: Ramesses IV
Dynasty: 20

KV 3
Possessor: Constructed for a son of Ramesses III
Dynasty: 20

KV 4
Possessor: Ramesses XI
Dynasty: 20

KV 5
Possessor: Sons of Ramesses II
Dynasty: 19

KV 6
Possessor: Ramesses IX
Dynasty: 20

KV 7
Possessor: Ramesses II
Dynasty: 19

KV 8
Possessor: Merenptah
Dynasty: 19

KV 9
Possessor: Ramesses V/VI
Dynasty: 20

KV 10
Possessor: Amenmeses
Dynasty: 19

KV 11
Possessor: Ramesses III
Dynasty: 20

KV 12
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 13
Possessor: Bay
Dynasty: 19

KV 14
Possessor: Tausert / Setnakht
Dynasty: 19

KV 15
Possessor: Seti II
Dynasty: 19

KV 16
Possessor: Ramesses I
Dynasty: 19

KV 17
Possessor: Seti I
Dynasty: 19

KV 18
Possessor: Ramesses X
Dynasty: 20

KV 19
Possessor: Mentuherkhepshef
Dynasty: 20

KV 20
Possessor: Thutmoses I / Hatshepsut
Dynasty: 18

KV 21
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

WV 22
Possessor: Amenhotep III
Dynasty: 18

WV 23
Possessor: Ay
Dynasty: 18

WV 24
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

WV 25
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 26
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 27
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 28
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 29
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 30
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 31
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 32
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 33
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 34
Possessor: Tuthmosis III
Dynasty: 18

KV 35
Possessor: Amenhotep II
Dynasty: 18

KV 36
Possessor: Maiherperi
Dynasty: 18

KV 37
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 38
Possessor: Tuthmosis I
Dynasty: 18

KV 39
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 40
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 41
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 42
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 43
Possessor: Tuthmosis IV
Dynasty: 18

KV 44
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 45
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 46
Possessor: Yuya and Thuya
Dynasty: 18

KV 47
Possessor: Siptah
Dynasty: 19

KV 48
Possessor: Amenemopet
Dynasty: 18

KV 49
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 50
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 51
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 52
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 53
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 54
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 55
Possessor: Amarna Cache
Dynasty: 18

KV 56
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 57
Possessor: Horemheb
Dynasty: 18

KV 58
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 59
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 60
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 61
Possessor: Unnamed
Dynasty: 18

KV 62
Possessor: Tutankhamun
Dynasty: 18

Related Posts:

Ramses II Tomb (KV 7)
Khufu Tomb
The Tomb of Thutmose III (KV34)

Where was Khufu Buried

We do no know in reality know if Khufu is entombed in the Pyramid of King Khufu or not. The Khufu Pyramid at Giza Egypt actually arrests two burial chambers. One lies directly below the construction, as is accustomed with other pyramids. The second burial chamber is placed at a height of about 138 feet (forty-two meters), and is attended by many belittled chambers and barbs that still haven't been in full explored. In the upper chamber investigators found a heavy, unfinished sarcophagus of pink granite that had never arrested anybody moral remains. Whether Khufu (who ruled from 2551-2528 BC - and as well known by his Greece name of Cheops) was buried in an even more secret spot, or whether he died in such that a way that his body was baffled, we don't know certainly.

It is thought that Khufu is entombed in the Pyramid of Khufu r the Giza pyramid, but it is'nt known for certain.

Agreeing to some scholars the Great Pyramid (near Cairo) was an astronomic notice place. For other scholars, the Great Pyramid was a position for religious ceremonials with forfeits. Some think that the Sphinx is ten thousand years old and the Great Pyramid was constructed at the like time and has nothing to do with the Egyptians.

- Evidence that Khufu entombed in the Pyramid of Khufu: First: Khufu’s father constructed a big pyramid also. Second: Khufu golden flatboat was buried at the four of the pyramid. Third: One hieroglyph with his name in a very backwoods depart of the pyramid.

- Evidence that Khufu was not buried in the Pyramid of Khufu: First: Traditionally, the sarcophagus is acquitted in. The unfinished one in the 'king's burial chamber' was constructed there and not acquitted. Second: If it was a tomb, there would have been hieroglyphics everyplace by the constructors and about the life and triumphs of Khufu alike all additional burial positions. There were not.

Proposal isn't likely:

He's entombed in the head of the Sphinx, the chambers in the pyramid were entailed as failsafe methods to protect their most confidant secrets (how they constructed the pyramids) aka the library of Egypt, alike why would you entomb it in the midst of nowhere with what a treasure map, no make a construction which will survive the essay of time.


Egypt Pyramid Tour is a great chance to watch the only surviving 7 wonder of the ancient world. Come and discover the landmark of Egypt, the great Pyramids of Giza on Egypt Pyramid Tour. Building on 'the ground of Nile' for around 4500 years, The Pyramids of Giza are not to be escaped on Tour to Egypt.

Recent Posts:

Sekhmekhet (Djoser Teti)
Bakare (Bikka)

Ramses II slaves

Although Ramses the great is thought to have reigned Egypt 1279-1213 BCE", he in reality ruled Egypt between around 650-610 BC. Ramses II is the Pharaoh Necho of the Bible (Tanaach). By the historical reconstruction now established on the carbon-dating of King Tut at 800 BCE not 1300 BCE, Queen Hatshepsut ("The sign of the Sheba of the South") circa 950 BC; and the completely obvious reference to Israel in 586 BCE from Merneptah (Merenptah) son of Pharaoh Ramses II that "Israel's Seed is amputate (altered); The Land (Retinu) demolished to the ground"; it's acquit the ramesside kings were 800 years afterward Moses.

The old thought that the Ramesses of Exodus 1:11 and Ramesses of Genesis 47:11, 2 incidents 430 years aside chronologically, were in some way contemporaries of Moses, dominated the idea of the editing. This is where an ancient city is commemorated in an edited text of a identical old text with the name of the city contemporary with the scribes copying the ancient text into afresh copy. This had to be done every coevals with the Bible's scrolls. Normally the names of cities didn't alteration much extra time but Pithom or Memphis did change more. Thence a redaction was clearly necessity or at least almost advisable in circa 500 BCE. It was as well cognised as Tahpanhes or Si-en Ptah, Noph, Moph, Migdol and the city of the ramessides. In fact King Ramses II and his sons probably reconstructed a lot of Memphis-Pithom (Memphit = Phit-mem = Pithom, see Budge "Heri P-Temai") with Israelite confinement around 600 BC. Jeremiah went and assured the Jews to return to Israel in his forty-fourth chapter.

The Jews did so construct both Pithom in 1500 BCE and Memphit-Phithom in 600 BCE when it was called the ramesside capital (ira miskenot). Unluckily, besides reading Exodus 1:11 "The Hebrews constructed the Pithom (Ramesseum)", 2 cities were acquired to have been built. It is true 2 cities were constructed by Jewish labour. However, they weren't two capital cities in two dissimilar sites in as is era. Instead, they were 2 cities built upon as is site in 2 dissimilar eras (1500 and 600 BC).


Family, Life and Childhood of King Ramses II
King Ramses II
Pharaoh Nubnefer
Pharaoh Neferkare
Pharaoh Neferkaseker


Djedefre or Radjedef was the 3rd king of the fourth Dynasty of ancient Egyptian rulers and reigned the country from 2528 BC till 2520 BC. He was the son of Khufu from one of his lesser married woman, and killed his brother, Prince Kewab, who was the lawful heir to the enthrone. He married Hetepheres , who was the widow of his murdered brother. His main wife was Kentetenka. His pyramid was found at Abu Rowash in the City of Giza.

Kheops was followed by Djedefre, his oldest enduring son. The mother of Djedefre is obscure.

He married his half-sister Hetepheres II, which might have been to legalise his claims to the enthrone if his mother was among Kheops’ lesser wives. He as well had different wive, Khentet-en-ka with whom he had (at any rate) three sons, Setka, Baka and Hernet and one daughter, Neferhetepes.

The Turin King-list accredits him with a rule of eight years, but the highest acknowledged year cited to during this rule was the year of the eleventh cattle count. This would mean that Djedefre reigned for leastwise eleven years, if the cattle counts were anual, or twenty-one years if the cattle counts were biennal.

He was the first king to apply the title "Son of Ra" as division of his titular which is seen as an indicant of the arising popularity of the cult of the solar god Ra.

He carried on the move north by building his bare pyramid at Abu Rawash, some 8 kilometer northward of Giza. It is the northern most division of the Memphite necropolis.

Radjedef was the 3rd king of the fourth Dynasty and reigned the country from 2528 BC till 2520 BC. He was the son of Khufu from among his lesser wives, and belted down his own brother, Prince Kewab, who was the lawful heir to the throne. He married Hetepheres , who was the widow of his dispatched brother. His main wife was Kentetenka. His pyramid was attained at Abu Rowash in Giza.

Khufu was followed by his oldest son Djedefre. He married his stepsister Hetepheres II, believably to get a claim to the enthrone since his mother was one of his father's secondary wives whose name isn't cognised.

Beside his half-sister Djedefre as well had additional wives, and with one of them, Khentet-en-ka, he had leastwise 3 sons, Setka, Baka and Hernet and one daughter (Neferhetepes).

The Turin King-list accredits him with a rule of eight years which is in line with the appraisals made by the Egyptologists now.

Radjedef was the first king to use the entitle "Son of Ra" among his others, which is ascertained as an indicant of the arising popularity of the cult of the solar deity Ra from Heliopolis. This god had came about in a king's call already in the 2nd dynasty (Nebre/Reneb).

He moved north to construct his pyramid, to Abu Rawash, some 8 kilometer to the north of Giza, and the reason can be that there was no suitable region left at the site. He named it "The pyramid is a Sehedu-star". The tomb was bare when he died and today its foundation is dug out to get excessiveness for visitors.

The pyramid area was confined by a wall and at the NW corner a littler satellite pyramid was constructed, credibly for the king's first queen.

The work stopped when almost 20 courses were in place, and some encasing of granite is allay on the spot. What sort of pyramid it was conjectural to be isn't clear and the constructed angle got by putting casing blocks i localize says that it was far steeper than the pyramids at Giza. One theory is that he had a step pyramid in mind, or a mastaba. Approximations of the height hence varies from fifty-seven to sixty-seven metres calculated by assist from the base side that's known by its length - 106 meter.

A causeway chairing down to the Nile, a debase of 1.700 meters, is going in the centering northeast by the monument ascribable the topography. It's still inviolate in some divisions and partly hewn out forthwith from the stone and arising 10-12 meters above the environs.

His mortuary temple position at the south side of the pyramid and was a structure of brick mayhap desolated when the king died, and not meant as a enshrine from the looks of it. At the side was a pit for a funeral boat just alike his father had at Giza. The inquiry why he actuated from Giza has been argued and one theory is that he came closer to Heliopolis on the other side of the Nile. A feud within the family about the succession has as well been arouse, but this hasn't been essayed in any way. Considering his face (if it's a portraiture) he has alike looks as his kid brother who became the next pharaoh.


Pharaoh Sekhemib
Sekhmekhet (Djoser Teti)

Pharaoh Khasekhemwy

The fifth Pharaoh of the second Dynasty was probably responsible the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. Not much is cognised about him, save the fact that he attempted monumental military campaigns. A statue of him which domiciles in the Cairo Museum, attests the first use of hard stone work on this period. He is responsible for the building of a large granite door jamb inside the temple of Hierakonpolis, and for the constructing of many of the mortuary composites at both Abydos and Saqqarah.

The greatest figure from the 2nd dynasty and believably the whole Early Dynastic Time, was pharaoh Khasekhemwy. He actually should have the title "Unifier of the 2 countries".

After gaining the conflict against the North that had began on the reign of his predecessor. He decided Hierakonpolis in the far southland to be his capital and it was the above all time the united Egypt was reigned from there. It took some attempt to win the war and inscriptions from granite watercrafts ascertained in his capital tells about his conflicts with the North, accounted as "rebels".

Being diplomatic he didn't favor any of the primary gods Horus and Set when the military conflict was over. He merely put them both atop of his serek, thereby desiring to make peace and arrange to the country. He as well changed his name assigning to it an extra -WY making it tell - "The Two Powers Come Forward", rather than individual one (Set) that he had before. In aftermath he also put a different commander's staff to his serek thereby attaining his new political view obvious.

He besides made a military campaign in to Egypt Nubia and acquired a new title: "superintendent of the foreign lands" that shows his concern to keep contact afield. His names has thus been discovered the whole way up to Byblos men in Syria. His tomb a little apart the others in Abydos is a singular construction dissimilar any of the earlier memorials there. The design is a fairly (diplomatic) assortment between the northern manner mastaba-tombs and the traditional square constructions from the south. On top of completely he localized it on "neutral" ground some 100 meters away the old cemetery. He besides kept the custom from most of the earlier pharaohs by making an enclosing 1,8 km toward the Nile from his tomb, credibly for rites of his mortal cult.

The size was far greater then his predecessors: sixty-nine m in length and 10-17 m wide attained of surrounds a good two m high. When it was dug in 1900 it still contained 6 implements such chisels and woodcutting creatures made of copper. In the midst was the grave chamber constitutional stone, the first of its form. The ability to handle this material was shown for the first time in Egyptian history by the statues of Khasekhemwy that have endured from a find in Hierakonpolis. If they are portraitures more than idols images, the king appears to be a man with a ascertained look in his face, and a firm head, and this appears to have been the features of the king.

The most strikingly rest from him is the huge constructing he made at the capital Hierakonpolis. On the westerly side of the River Nile a bit into the desert lies the oldest recognized monumental constructing of sun-dried bricks in Egypt.

It is the supposed Fortress with its gigantic construction. The purpose of it is fairly arguable and varies from a fort to protect the capital from foemen to a ceremonial inclosure for dissimilar rituals connected to idolising of gods or morgue cults the dead pharaohs. The measures are around 67 by 57 meters and while in a state of ruin - the monumental walls are of attributes not found in Egypt ever since - 5 metres thick and still today abiding up to eleven metres high.

The most singular remain believed to be his is the very large rectangular enclosing at West Saqqarah and today called Gisr el-Mudir. Excavated in some localizes on the 1990s it turned out to accommodate a rock cut wall. In some positions the height was 4,5 meters in 15 cores and the base width of 15 meters proposes a much bigger height when it was completed. The building measures around 600 x 340 meters with an becharm from the south side. There is no decipher of any constructions within the walls which are built with aligns of hewn rocks and a core made of rubble and sand. This filling has broke rests from dynasty 2, maybe indicating that the constructing is older than Djoser's Step Pyramid nearby. The primary of the excavaitin appraisals the age to be from the middle to the late 2nd dynasty. Gisr el-Mudir has a closing resemblance to his ceremonial region present at Abydos, but this was constructed of mud bricks.

The association to Djoser has been shown by determinations outside the door of Khasekhemwy's tomb at Abydos where administers of seals with Djosers name came to hand in the 1990s, excavated by German archaeologists. This is a accented indication that he attended of the funeral of Khasekhemwy and was his (believably immediate) heir.

Khasekhemwy's endowed politics made the different divisions of society brandish and his work was a landmark in the developing of Egyptian history. He posed the ground to the golden days that were to arrive, and the coming coevalses were in big debt to him for their wealth. It is conceivable, but not certain, that Djoser (his son or step son) absorbed office and began a new chapter in the history of human race by making a new typecast of grave memorials later to be called - the Pyramids.

Recent Posts:

Pharaoh Neferkaseker
Pharaoh Peribsen
Pharaoh Sekhemib

Pharaoh Neferkare

There are no contemporary memorials from the Pharaoh Neferkare. Many rulers have had this name and the sound components building up the name are really common. Archaeologists know him just from the 2 king lists from Áaka's tomb at Saqqara and the dedication in the papyrus from Turin called the Royal Canon of Turin. In the 3rd list of substance - the Abydos king list from a wall in the temple of pharaoh Seti I from the nineteenth dynasty, he does not subsist and nor does his immediate heir. This temple is from 1200 years afterward the 2nd dynasty and so are the additional two lists. If the deletion of him and his heir has to do with a custom in Abydos (with hostility to the northern Memphis region during the 2nd dynasty) we do not know.

In both the Saqqara and Turin lists he has the location between Sened and Neferkaseker and in Manteho's list he is in as is place under the Greek-formed call Nepherkheres.

At the close of the Old Kingdom about dynasty 6 his name comes to light on many rulers. This appearances that he and extra more or less nameless kings from the same time, was far from blanked out by the generations that abide by them. Picture at top right appearances the cartouche with Neferkare's name as it looks in the Sakkara list. It arrests the signs KA with the aroused arms (intending soul) and Nefer (a sign maybe showing a belly and a windpipe) intending beautiful and the sun (or really solar god) Re.


- Merenre II
- Nitocris
- Pharaoh Sened
- Pharaoh Nubnefer

Pepi II

Pepi II of the 6th Dynasty [2300-2181 B.C.]. Last well-attested pharaoh of the Old Kingdom, with an exceptionally long rule estimated diversely between sixty and 90 years. A long reign appears confirmed by attest that the king was a child once he came to the throne: there are pictures of the king as a child, including a well-known figurine demoing him on the lap of his mother. The throne-name Neferkare was applied by other kings later in Egyptian history: hence references to the throne-name alone can just be dated to this rule if there is certification (for example, when an aim inscribed with the name is lately Old Kingdom type).

Pepi II as a boy

The 5th king of the 6th Dynasty was the son of King Pepi I and Queen Ankhnesmeryre II. This heir of Nemtyemzaf was only 6 years old when he concerned the throne. His mother assisted as his regent. Since a child Pepi encountered word that a dwarf had been appropriated. Pepi sent detailed directions on the care of the dwarf , including a anticipate of a reward to the official that brought the dwarf safely to him. The letter accented the importance of twenty-four hour care to hold the dwarf safe from harm. Pepi based trading despatches to Punt and Nubia. Reportedly, Pepi reigned Egypt for ninety-four years. His married woman* were Queens Nit, Wedjebten, Ankhnespepi and Ipuit. His pyramid was constructed in Sakkara.

King Pepi II was the son of King Pepi I and Ankhenesmerire I. He was the stepbrother of his predecessor, Merenre I. He was got married to Neith, his stepsister and to Iput II, a daughter of his brother. He was besides married to a woman called Udjbeten. His heir, Merenre II, is maybe the son Pepi II had with Neith.

When his stepbrother died, evidently without any male heirs, Pepi II was yet a child. Agreeing to the Turin King-list, he reigned for over ninety years, which looks to be affirmed by Manetho, who recorded ninety-four years. This would cause Pepi II the longest reigning king of Ancient Egypt. Some doubt has yet been caducous on this high number, and some researchers think that it was the consequence of a miss-reading of sixty-four.

The existent power primitively of his reign was accommodated by his mother and her brother, Djau. An alabaster statue demoes Ankhenesmerire I with the young but purple Pepi II on her lap, passably evocative of Isis with the young Horus. Another statue, demoes Pepi II as a naked kid.

Pepi II's long rule is branded by a gradual decline of the exchange government. His predecessors' policy to attempt and consolidate the attitude of the king was beginning to fail, and this would become more conspicuous after Pepi II's death. It is frequently thought that the cause of this was the long rule of Pepi II: the aging king was no longer capable to rule himself, which would have expanded the power of his central disposal and of the provincial governors. On the other hand, it must be marked that Pepi's funerary memorial was constructed and decorated in a often poorer way than his predecessors', which may argue a decline in welfare generally during his rule. This decline is likely to have been the result of the lower annual alluvion of the Nile: with a bluer annual alluvion, crops and crops were no more abundant and agriculture, the backbone of Egyptian economy, started to decay.

Pepi II's foreign policy also is marked by some troubles. In the starting of his reign, a pygmy bestowed by the governor of Elephantine, could delectation the young king. Later, many expedition leaders would find their deaths though campaigning in Nubia. The commercial kinship with Byblos appear to have carried on, but many other commercial kinships with foreign countries were chipped.

Pepi II constructed his funerary complex in Sakkara South, near the monument of Shepseskaf of the fourth Dynasty, at a kilometre length from his father's and brother's. His 3 wives were buried in littler pyramids following to his own.

The 5th king of the sixth Dynasty was the son of King Pepi I and Queen Ankhnesmeryre II. This heir of Nemtyemzaf was just six years old when he concerned the throne. His mother assisted as his regent. As a child Pepi accepted word that a dwarf had been appropriated.

Pepi sent elaborate instructions on the care of the dwarf, including a anticipate of a reward to the prescribed that bestowed the dwarf safely to him. The letter accented the importance of twenty-four hour care to hold on the dwarf safe from damage.

Pepi based trading expeditions to Punt and Nubia. Reportedly, Pepi reigned Egypt for ninety-four years. His married woman were Queens Nit, Wedjebten, Ankhnespepi and Ipuit. His pyramid was constructed in Sakkara

King Pepi II carried on foreign relations of his predecessors and asseverated diplomatic and commercial coitions with Byblos in Syria. Campaigns of "pacification" entered Nubia and he as well continued the long accomplished mining practices in Sinai and elsewhere.

He had a act of queens, most of them related him, and one of his boys, Merenre II, who may have came through him, maybe for just one year.

His pyramid and mortuary composite was constructed at South Saqqara and the pyramid's call was [The Established and Living Pyramid].

It was constructed and decorated in a often poorer mode then his predecessors and power and wealth of eminent officials banquet all over Egypt dragging hold away from the capital Memphis. Disposal of the country became hard and he appointive one vizier to each one for Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt to regain hold, but vainly.

On his exceptionally long rule (ninety-four years according to Manetho and sixty-four by some scholars) foreign relations such military expeditions into Nubia, debilitated the state treasury and some foreign relations were even broken away. The central disposal for taxation was brushed off by governors approximately the country and towards the end of his rule, the authorities of Egypt simply broke up.

Recent Posts:

- Pepi I
- Pyramid of Pepi I
- Merenre Nemtyemzaf I

Pepi I

King Pepi I was the son of [Teti] and Queen [Ipwet]. He was the 3rd king of the sixth Dynasty. An advanced leader, Pepi took the loathsome military role. He attacked the Bedouins in Sinai and southern Palestine. He also led a military campaign in Nubia to establish forts and trading posts. Pepi's pyramid was so telling that its name, Mennefermare, was given to the field. The capital, primitively named Hiku-Ptah, was renamed Nennefer, so Menfi. The Greeks later transcribed it as Memphis. Pepi constructed temples at Tanis, Bubastis, Abydos, Dendera and Coptos. Copper statues of Pepi were discovered in Hierakonpolis, and are on exhibit in the Cairo Museum. His first wife melted soon after she was discovered in a harem plat to overturn the throne. Afterwards he married 2 daughters of a nomarch and named them both Ankhnesmeryre. Among them was the mother of Pepi II.

Pepi I

Pharaoh Pepi I was the son of Teti and a woman called Iput I, who is accepted by some to have been a daughter of Unas. He had many wives. With Ankhenesmerire I he got a son, Pepi II. With Ankhenesmerire II, a girl of her name-sake, he had a boy, Merenre I and a girl, Neith. His marriage to these 2 sisters may have been a political move as they were the daughters of a noble from Abydos, called Khui.

The twenty years concorded to him in the Turin King-list is very low and maybe the result of a error of the composer or scribe of the king-list, or of a bad refurbishment by more recent scientists. The highest commemorated year is the year after the twenty-fifth counting. If the countings took place every 2 years, the year after the twenty-fifth counting would be the fiftieth year.

The inner policy of Pepi I was a continuance of his father's tries to consolidate the power of the central government. This is attested not just by his marriage to two daughters of a noble from Abydos, but also by the extensive constructing policy of this king. Memorials were raised in Bubastis, Abydos, Elephantine and Dendara. In Dendara, his retention would be conserved by a now lost statue that shows him doting Hathor, as shown in a few alleviations in the temple from the Greek-Roman period.

On his reign, there were the most traditional military expedition to the Sinai and into Nubia. He also coordinated some expeditions to the Wadi Hammamat. The commercial relationship with the Near East was exposed by an intrusion of a peregrine people into Palestine.

His funerary composite, named Men-nefer, was constructed at Saqqara South, a few kilometers to the South of his father's. It was constructed at some distance from the temple of Ptah of Memphis. Its name would be changed to this temple from the eighteenth Dynasty on, and from there on would be enforced to the intact city of Memphis.

Pepi I was the 2d ruler of Egypt's sixth Dynasty, a period that would finally fall into the abyss of the First arbitrate Period. Pepi I was this pharaoh's birthing name, though we may also find him listed as Pepy I, Piopi I, Pipi and the Greek Phiops. His enthrone name was Mery-re, intending [Beloved of Re], while he actually used the throne name, Nefersahor during the first half of his reign, later altering it to Mery-re. He reigned Egypt from around 2332 through 2283 BC. He likely came up the throne as an early age, and seems to have ruled for some fifty years (or leastwise forty years).

It is completely possible that Pepi I didn't follow his father to the enthrone. Kings Lists let in the name of a Pharaoh Userkara between that of King Teti and King Pepi I, and it may be that this king arrogated the enthrone for a brusk time.

He was credibly the son of Teti and his queen, Iput I. Whilst he may have had leastways six, the wives of Pepi I that we cognise of were Ankhnesmerire I and II (Sometimes as well determined as Meryre-ankh-nas), who were the girls of an influential official (believably governor of the area) at Abydos called Khui. Pepi I made his brother-in-law, we think a son of Khui named Djau, vizier. A woman called Were-Imtes could have been his 1st wife but some Egyptologists have evoked that she might not have been his wife in the least.. It may have been Were-Imtes who planned a cabal against her husband from the harem, but she was found out and penalised. This occurred in the 21 cattle census, or about year forty-two of the king's convention. An confederate in this plot could have been Rewer, a vizier of Pepi I who's name has been effaced from his tomb. However, Callender has indicated that the confederacy wasn't by one of Pepi's queens, but was alternatively a plot by maybe the mother of the mysterious King Userkare. Essentially, there is considerable confusedness between the explanations catered by assorted Egyptologists around this confederacy.

Evidently, he married Ankhnesmerire I belated in his reign, perhaps yet after the harem confederacy, and may have married her little sister after the first sister's death, just this is by no means absolved. His sons, Merenre (by his wife Ankhnesmerire I) and Pepi II (by Ankhnesmerire II) would rule Egypt through the end of the 6th Dynasty. He as well had a daughter by Ankhnesmerire I called Neith, who would afterward marry her stepbrother Pepi II. It appears that Pepi II was born either only before or presently after Pepi I's death. Pepi I could have had a number of additional wives, letting in a Nebuunet (Nebwenet) and Inenek-Inti, who's little pyramids are close his at South Sakkara. An dedication has besides been found documenting another queen, maybe from Upper Egypt, called Nedjeftet. Other family appendages, though we are not so sure of their relationships, credibly included a woman called Meretites, and another woman called Ankhesenpepi (or Ankhnesmerire) III. Very lately, (June 2000) we are assured by Dr. Zahi Hawass of a different pyramid that has been discovered by the French squad close Pepi I's that looks to be that of Ankhnesmerire II, while in this report she is mentioned to as Ankhes-en Pepi.

In the right: Ankhnesmerire II accommodates the infant King Pepi II

Leastways 4 statues of the king have endured, including the earliest acknowledged life size carving in metal. This state flog from the temple of Hierakonpolis (Nikhen) in upper Egypt and is attained of copper. Found with it was as well a copper statue of his young boy and future king, Merenre. Additional statues include a belittled green statue of the king believably making oblations to deities, and a belittled alabaster statue of Pepi I accommodating the royal baffled flail and sceptre "crook".

We acknowledge that the rule of Pepi saw the rising charm and wealth of nobles away the royal court, a circumstance that perhaps had often to do with a correct into the First arbitrate Period. These noblemen constructed fine tombs for themselves and frequently boasted of favors resulting from friendship to Pepi I.

In the left: Copper statue of Pharaoh Pepi I and Merenre

We besides know that Pepi I broached a number of trading and other despatches, often for fine rock to be used in his many constructing casts. One inscription discovered at the alabaster pits at Hatnub is dated to year fifty of his rule. It refers to the twenty-fifth cattle count, which was a biyearly event. He was likewise active at the Wadi Maghara turquoise and copper pits in the Sinai, the greywacke and siltstone pits of Wadi Hammamat, where his first Sed Festival is referred. We think he also defended diplomatic and commercial coitions with Byblos and Ebla.

He may have too sent despatches to the mines of Sinai and as far-off as Palestine. The dispatch into Palestine was chaired by a person called Weni the Welder (Uni?) and affected landing flocks from the sea. A exclusive dedication is the only document of the 5 campaigns led below Pepi I Palestine, the Land of the Sand Dwellers as the Egyptians named the areas east of Egypt.

His majesty based me to lead this army five times to chasten the land of the Sand Dwellers, every time they arose, with these flocks. I acted so that his majesty praised me for it. Assured that there were arises among these foreigners at the 'Nose-of-the-Gazelle's-head' I baffled in ships, collectively with these flocks. I put to land at the back of the height of the chain northward of the land of the Sand-Dwellers, whilst (the other) half of this regular army were travelling by ground. I turned back, I blockaded all of them and slew every arise amongst them.

Of the autobiography of King Weni the Elder

Pepi I believably did considerable constructing but little of it remains, intrinsically. Some of his constructing projects were likely comprised into later projects, but he did leave many dedications. Building projects of Pepi I include the remains of a chapel (Hwt-ka) at Bubastis, as well as projects at Elephantine and Abydos. He may have accomplished work at Dendara too. He built his pyramid at South Sakkara and the Pyramid Text autographed on the pyramid surrounds were the 1st to be discovered by Egyptologists, though not the first commemorated in a pyramid. This pyramid was called Mn-nfr, implying (Pepi is) constituted and good". The corruptness of this call by classical authors offered our modern name for Egypt's ancient capital, Memphis. His palace could have been identical close his pyramid in South Sakkara.

Pepi is additional attested to by edicts found at Dahshure (today in Berlin) and Coptos. He was referred in life history* of Weni in his tomb at Abydos, Djaw from his grave at Abydos, Ibi in his grave at Deir el-Gabrawi, Meryankhptahmeryre in his tomb at Giza, Qar in hist tomb at Edfu and the life on a tomb at Sakkara by an unidentified person.

The son of Teti and Queen Ipwet was the 3rd pharaoh of the sixth Dynasty. An advanced leader, Pepi took the loathsome military role. He aggressed the Bedouins in Sinai and southerly Palestine. He also led a agitate in Nubia to establish forts and trading posts.

Pepi's pyramid was so telling that its name, Mennefermare, inclined to the region. The capital, primitively called Hiku-Ptah, was renamed Nennefer, so Menfi. The Greeks later transcribed it as Memphis. Pepi constructed temples at Abydos, Dendera, Tanis, Bubastis and Coptos.

Pepi's copper statues were discovered in Hierakonpolis, and are on show in the Cairo Museum. His 1st wife melted soon after she was discovered in a harem plot to override the throne. After he married 2 daughters of a nomarch and called them both Ankhnesmeryre. Among them was the mother of King Pepi II.

Among the names of King Pepi I was "The Ka soul of Re is powerful" and contemplates back on the traditional solar cult from Heliopolis that was tardily freeing its grip as the most powerful demonstration of the Egyptian amused religion.

When he come up the throne he had the call of his predecessor king Userkare distant wherever conceivable, arguing a feud in the royal house.

Many constructing projects of his are acknowledged from Bubastis in the delta to Aswan in the south, but brief of it remains. Some of it was maybe incorporated into later projects attained by other rulers, but he did leave many dedications from his time telling around his deeds on his three decade dominate.

He coordinated expeditions to Sinai and Nubia and has left stone carving in Wadi Hammamat, a 120 kilometre long route between the River Nile valley and the Red Sea.

Among the most noteworthy discoveries in Egyptian history was built in Hierakonpolis in Upper Egypt. It was a big copper statue of Pepi I and his petty son Merenre.

He constructed his pyramid composite at south Sakkara four kms south of Djoser's composite and a couple of hundred meters from the pyramid of 5th dynasty king Djedkare Isesi. On the nineteenth dynasty it was bushelled and text from this affair tell that it was in good shape at that time.

When former Egyptologists entered the subterraneous rooms from the northerly side entrance in the late 1800s, they discovered pyramid texts incised in the walls, circularising light over the builder of the memorial and more. The valley temple and causeway are still to be and investigated, but the rests of them look to be very few. The mortuary composite was most a duplicate of Teti's and the pyramid was of 6 dynasty standard sizing: a 79 meter square with a height of fifty-three.

It besides had a name of its possess; [The accomplished and Beautiful Pyramid]. Nowadays this knockout is a twelve-meter high break.


- King Weneg
- King Ninetjer
- Teti
- Userkare

Famous Pharaohs Blog

famouspharaohs.blogspot.com, blog about ancient Egypt and ancient Egyptian Pharaohs.

In Famous Pharaohs blog you can read about: Famous Pharaohs, Famous Egyptian Pharaohs, Queen Hatshepsut, Tutankhamun, Khufu, List of Famous Pharaohs, Ramses II, Sneferu, Khafra, Amenhotep I, Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, Cleopatra, Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV), Nefertiti, Buildings of Hatshepsut, List of Egyptians Pharaohs, Family, Life and Childhood of Ramses II, Egypt Under Ramses II, The Death of Ramses II, Sneferu, Queen Ankhesenamun, Amenhotep II, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, Thutmose IV, Djoser, Narmer, Seti I, Ramses I, Ramses III, Senusret II, Senusret III, The Predynastic Period, Archaic Period, The Old Kingdom, First Intermediate Period, The Middle Kingdom, The New Kingdom, Tutankhamun Tomb (KV62), Tutankhamun Mummy, Tutankhamun Jewelry, Tutankhamun Facts, King Sekhen, King Iry-Hor/Ro, King Ka, King Crocodile, King Lion, Scorpion I, Scorpion II, King Anendjib, King Semerkhet, King Qa'a (Kaa), King Sneferka, King Hetepsekhemwy, King Reneb, King Weneg ... and more.

King Ninetjer

King Ninetjer’s name mean “Horus, the one of the god” or “Nebti, the one of the god”. He reigned from year 2815 to 2778 according to Piccione. His Burial Place Unknown, probably Memphis.

Ninetjer was the 3rd king of the 2nd Dynasty, and took Memphis as his capitol. He ruled ancient Egypt for most 40 years and he was notable for his festivals and fantastic temples.

Historican Manetho gives Ninetjer a reign of 47 years and calles him in a Greek way - Binothris. The change to a b-sound was made in later times when an additional sign (a ram) with that value was put to the king's name. Writings from his own time just content the flag and the weavy line.

Of Eygptian canons his identify therefor is to be read: Baneteren, Baneteru and Neteren (cartouch from Abydos).

Art - From early dynastic

He is the better known of all kings from this early division of the second dynasty. Waterproofings with his name has been found in assorted places in Lower Egypt and most of all in Sakkara where one "nobility class" mastaba at the north escarpment arrested half a dozen. It believably consisted to one of his high officials. His name has as well been discovered in big a mastaba from Giza, but just at one affair in Upper Egypt - at Abydos. It was found on stone vessels from the tomb of the later king Peribsen who possibly had brought them down in the south from the Memphis area.

Aside of all stone vessels his name only appears double on other types of objects: a small ivory mark and a famous statuette of stone.

This good cut little bit measuring 13,5 centimeter in height and 8,8 x 4,8 centimeter at the base, is made of a hard alabaster-like stone with a luster towards greenish-yellow. It shows the king sitting on his throne assuming the white crown of Upper Egypt and at his chest he's holding the crook and the flail. He is appareled in a tight fitting vest and this garment is typically associated with the Sed-festival that happed every 20th year. He looks alike a man in his older days. At both sides of the base his name is written by hieroglyphs not bordered by a serek as depicted in upper left corner of the picture.

Almost of the cognition about his feats comes from the Palermo stone where his name is written higher up the boxes with the annual cases. These entries are from his 6th to his twentieth year on the throne. Writing on stone vessels from Sakkara propose that his reign was at lowest thirty-five years long since a annotation says that the biyearly census had only been accomplished for the 17th time.

The notations about dissimilar festivities are all demur one referring to effects from Lower Egypt. There are records of political events too, since in his 13th year in office he ordered his forces to attack two nameless towns (Sm-r and Há). The name Há can as well be read "northern land" suggesting a rebellion from some identifies in the delta, or disorder at the northern frontier.

Ninetjer's tomb has been discovered in Saqqara just south of Djoser's pyramid composite and about 150 m alongside the tomb galleries of the founder of the dynasty.

His Monuments:

Tomb ataqqara, A construction the tomb of Hotepsekhemwi was found to the east of it, thus slenderly more aside from the pyramid of Unas. Even lower is acknowledged about it. A cursory examen has brought to light some seals abiding the name of the 2nd Dynasty king Ninetjer, which has appropriated us to describe this tomb as Ninetjer's.

When it was first acceded by archaeologists, it was as well found to contain 1000s of mummies of the Late Dynastic Period and later. These mummies distinctly belonged to intrusive burials of that date.

Recent Posts:

- King Hetepsekhemwy
- King Reneb
- King Weneg

King Qa'a (Kaa)

scholars suggested that Qa'a lived from 3100 to 2890 BCE. For Manetho AF he reigned 26 years from 2889 to 2859 BCE.

Almost scholars think that King Qa'a was the last king of the first dynasty. We may as well assure his name as Kaa, or many other fluctuations. Although Egyptologists frequently disaccord on dating, our current better estimate is that he lived from around 3100 to 2890 BC.

Whilst this information on Qa'a is extremely circumscribed, till Dreyer and Kaiser analysis their information and furnish us with more information, brief additional is known of this former Egyptian Pharaoh. He was believably entombed in Tomb Q at Abydos, where 2 typical royal funerary stelae abiding his name were discovered on the east side of the tomb. This tomb has been hollowed on a number of dissimilar occations, first by Emile Amelineau in the 1890s, so Flinders Petrie and in 1991, by Werner Kaiser and Gunther Dreyer. The work treated this later German team brought out many small artefacts and architectural contingents that had been commanded by earlier diggings. These include 30 autographed labels that delineate the bringing of oil, credibly built from berries or tree rosins, and belike from the Syria-Palestine region.

Seal beliefs and artifacts have likewise been discovered in Tomb Q with the call of Hetepsekhemwy, the first pharaoh of the second dynasty. This suggests that Hetepsekhemwy accomplished Tomb Q, and that there was no real breach between the first and second dynasties of Egypt. The change in dynasties from the first to the second was primitively reported by Manetho without explanation.

We besides know of four tombs in Saqqara that date to this kings rule. The lower part of two wooden statues were found in one of these tombs in a set of rooms on the north side. Some scholars think this may have been an bidding chapel, and that the mortuary temple in pyramid composites may have evolved from this structure.

Egyptologists have likewise discovered the stelae of 2 of Qa'a's officials, Merka and Sabef. These stelae have more composite inscriptions then earlier hieroglyphics, and may have indicated in increasing sophistication in the apply of this writing.

Qáa was the last king of the dynasty and agreeing to Manetho he reigned for about 26 years, and this is belike because various mastabas at Sakkara are dated to his rule.

During 1993 a German archaeological despatch re-excavated his tomb at Abydos and discovered that a lot alterations had been made to the tomb and attempted over significant period of time. It is one of the almost impressive at the Abydos cemetery and the funeral chamber still held divisions of the wooden floor and the colourful blueprints on the walls. A fine artefact was found by archaeologist Petrie in 1900 (shown in picture left). It's a backing rod made of ivory showing a confined of war with his hands adhered behind his back. Many is pointing to that the described man is from a tribe in the east, and the sign above is head is a really unusual hieroglyph that in later times at least, corresponded enemies from that direction. His large beard is a little to much to come from an Egyptian, they used to shave themselves at least on their cheeks. Other find from his grave was three copper bowls with the king's name on. The practice of subsidiary burial where servants were killed so to serve the ruler in the afterlife discontinued after the reign of Qáa. The beginning of his reign is recorded on the Cairo stone, assuring about his ceremonial duties and basing of temples...

Amongst the ascertains in his tomb in the 1990s was a seal belief with all the kings from the first dynasty up to Qáa himself was written down. It is a singular piece with all pharaohs in a line dropping queen Neith-Hotep. The fact that Narmer is the first in line remarks him as the founder of the dynasty and unifier later called Menes.

A check into administration was brought to light when year judges from his tomb told about timber deported to the royal workshops and festivals.

Qáa is authenticated to the south from rock cuttings near the old town of Hierakonpolis, and also adverted on jar sealings and two besmirched stela. Until the reign of Den Egypt seems to have enjoyed stability and prosperity, but during Anedjib's reign order broke down when contradictory divides (Horus versus Set) caused alterations that ended the dynasty.

During 1960s came to light on the caper dealers' market a singular bit of art. It was a totally unknown stela of pharaoh Qaa. In his serek where his name should be, was amazingly nothing but the white crown of Upper Egypt (the Hedjet). Thus he is afterward this find also called by the double name Qaa-Hedjet. Nothing in hieroglyphic writing on the stone affirms his identity, which is made solely on aesthetic grounds from the way the relief pictures and sign are did.

Recent Posts:

* Scorpion II
* King Anendjib
* King Semerkhet