King Khufu, named Cheops by the Greeks. His father is king Sneferu and his mother queen Hetepheres. Khufu had 15 daughters and nine sons, one of them became the successor. He reigned 23 years, some scholars say that he reigned for a long time. The first discover for Khufu reign was in the late of the nineteenth century. The new rediscover made by Dr. Hawas.

Khufu sank his chops into the after life by, during his reign of 2589-2566 BC, commanding the construction of his pyramid. Slaves living in purpose-made towns nearby quarried limestone into two million stone blocks, most weighing around 500 lbs, some much heavier.

They slid these on parallel logs covered with Nile River mud which move by the power of the floods, then up long ramps winding around the rising pyramids. Many slaves service the pharaoh and suffered bone damage and died young. Construction took twenty years, working all year but especially in the summer when the Nile River water flood and people power couldn’t work on fields, anyway. Some people believe that there is a secret or a treasure in the pyramid of Khufu.

The Great Pyramid of Khufu

The great pyramid of Giza

From Aswan, down the Nile 600 miles on reed came granite for Khufu’s burial chamber. In time, the emperor’s cedar and hemp, ten-oared funeral barge, carved to resemble reed boats used to transport on the Nile, carried him to the pyramid while the king's body remained cooled with palm leaves.

Then his body was carried to the funeral in a boat-shaped sledge proceeded by many mourners to show the society’s great sadness at his death (excepting, no doubt, the dead slaves), king Khufu was buried (no mummification—those techniques developed later) with a collection of food, furniture collection, servants and other objects he might need in an after life.

Finally, the people buried his boat (sun boats) in the sand beside the pyramid to allow him to travel and have their journey by this boats to the next world in style.

Inside the great pyramid of Khufu

Inside the great pyramid of Khufu

This pyramid of king Khufu, containing more stone than all the later European cathedrals combined, stood there, already an ancient relic, for Abraham to see when he came, starving, to Egypt. By the time of his visit, Egyptians still buried their dead in pyramids. The pyramids of Giza is the symbol of the Egypt power, and there is more secrets and discovers inside the pyramid.

If you are visit Egypt or think to make Egypt pyramid tours and arrived at (Cairo), you can get any car (Taxi) or by Metro. But if you are in Luxor city or Aswan city you can access to [Giza Egypt] where the pyramid found by air or by train. And finally there is a question and the answer be in the comments. Is there any pottery tools found inside the great pyramid?

The Great Pyramid of Khufu:

The pyramid of Khufu at Giza is constructed of limestone blocks of varying size. The lowest row of blocks have outer faces of 1.47 by 1.47 meters. Where the entire block is visible the depth is one and one half times the height. A limestone block of this size would weigh approximately 8,445 kg. (9.3 tons). The uppermost remaining row has blocks less than half a meter tall and weighing approximately 22.2 kg (48.9 lbs). Estimates of the total number
of blocks vary greatly. Anthony P. Sakovich has reviewed the evidence and built a computer model of the pyramid. He calculates the total number of blocks at close to 4,000,000.1. The base area of the pyramid is 5.3067 hectares (13.113 acres).

There are small sockets marking the corners of the pyramid. Since their discovery by William Flinders Petrie, these sockets have been used by all credible researchers as the reference points for measuring the lengths of the base lines of the pyramid. Petrie surveyed these lines in 1881 and a second survey was done by J. H. Cole in 1925. The two surveys agree closely with one another. The table below uses Cole’s measurements of the length and the azimuth of each line.

The unit of measure that it is expected that the Egyptians used for this and other architectural projects was the royal cubit. Numerous cubit sticks have been found in Egypt. Petrie reports an average length of 20.632 ± 0.004" (524.05 mm.). The royal cubit was divided into seven palms and each palm was divided into four digits. There were thus twenty-eight digits in a royal cubit.

Using this unit of measure, it would appear that the target dimensions of the pyramid were base lines of 440 cubits and a height of 280 cubits. The average of the lengths of the four base lines is 439.58 cubits. Alternatively, if we assume the average length of the base lines to be precisely 440 cubits, the length of the cubit inferred would be 523.55 mm., only one-half millimeter shorter than the average reported by Petrie.

The height is a projection since there are around 30’ missing from the top of the pyramid. The projected height is 280.48 cubits (146.845 meters). Interior dimensions are also convenient integers when converted to cubits. The longest interior passage is 90 cubits long and the burial chamber is 20x10x11 cubits.

The Egyptians calculated the slope of the side of a pyramid by a unit that they called the seked. It is clear from the Rhine Mathematical Papyrus example that follows that the Egyptians considered the seked a unit of length, not a ratio. The seked is the horizontal distance that must be offset for every vertical cubit of elevation in order to maintain the intended slope of the pyramid. The seked is calculated as one-half of the base divided by the height of the pyramid. It is the same as what we would call the cotangent. The example that follows is the translation of Problem 56 from the Rhine Mathematical Papyrus.

Who built the great pyramid:

By Aliens:

The pyramids are so accurately aligned with the points of the compass that only aliens could have achieved this all those thousands of years ago. The angle of the slope of the sides is so precise only aliens could achieve this. The blocks are so heavy and the pyramid so tall only aliens could achieve this. In the period 2500 BC man did not have the tools or knowledge necessary to build the pyramids, so only aliens could have done it. How the aliens built the pyramids is not known, but they would have employed the use of advanced construction equipment.

By men:

Never underestimate the ingenuity of man. We are today so used to using machinery to carry out virtually all our major construction work that we sometimes forget that machinery, in terms of historical events, is a very new development, its only been around a couple of hundred years or so. Mankind managed very well without it for many thousands of years. We have long forgotten the techniques that were used in the building of the pyramids, but this doesn't mean that we are unable to work out how it was done.

I see them as beehive in hustle

In order to try and establish who built the pyramids we have to examine the evidence that we have. We have only the pyramids themselves, the excavation sites where the blocks were quarried from, and historical accounts.

Lets start with the excavation site. If like me, you have been there, you will know that it looks pretty much like any other quarry you might see today, except there is obviously no machinery. At the quarry face there are blocks cut into the rock but not yet cut away. There are rough hewn blocks scattered around ready for transporting and on-site finishing. The entire quarry shows obvious signs of systematic development of cutting blocks out from the face and transporting them from site. The rough hewn free standing blocks show the scars of repeated chisel blows where they were chiseled out of the rock face.
There is nothing in the manner of these blocks that is anything other than old fashioned quarry work using a mallet and chisel. Nowhere is there any sign of advanced technology having been employed, just the opposite. The blocks were hewn out of the rock-face by manual labour, the signs are unmistakable. The chisels used were made of copper, the hardest metal then available, but even they were only good for about 100 blows before blunting, even though limestone is relatively soft and easy to work compared to hard rock such as granite. As the chisels were blunted they were exchanged for re-sharpened ones, and the process was repeated with a team of blacksmiths constantly re-sharpening and tempering the chisels.

The Egyptians, The Pyramids Builders

How were the blocks transported to the pyramids? By man power. The vast majority of the blocks weighed in the region of 2.5 tons and were transported on wooden sledges. They could of course have chosen any size for the blocks, but this must have been the optimum size, any bigger would probably have slowed them down. A team of men with ropes could drag the sledge across the clay floor, and this could be eased with a little water tipped in front of the runners helping the sledge to slide easier. It is estimated that it may have taken 10 years just to build the ramp from the quarry to the pyramids. In this manner all the blocks could be transported to the site of the pyramid without presenting any insurmountable challenges. So far no alien technology required, it could all be done by well organised teams of men, and a great deal of manual labour. During the time of the annual flooding of the Nile the stone blocks could have been floated to the site of the pyramids on rafts, making the task a lot easier.

The work force was was not one of slaves , the Egyptians didn't need slaves. The Nile supplied a very fertile land where farming was relatively easy and food abundant. This civilisation had time on its hands, no wonder they were such great mathematicians, astronomers and architects. The work force was primarily made up of farmers, recruited nationwide for a period ranging from a few months to a few years, and they served their time for their king, much like serving National Service today in the armed forces. A total of 20,000 to 30,000 workers would have been needed for the task, ranging from unskilled hauliers, semi-skilled quarry men, skilled quarry men, masons who finished the blocks, men who placed the blocks, officials and caterers. A village was purpose built to house them all and they were well fed and cared for in return for their work. The remains of the village can still be seen today.

Now for making the pyramids themselves. About 2,550 B.C., King Khufu, the second pharaoh of the fourth dynasty, commissioned the building of his tomb at Giza. Some Egyptologists believe it took somewhere in the region of 80 years to construct the pyramid. Having man-hauled the blocks to the site of the pyramid the obvious problem now is how to stack them up. There are a number of ways this may have been achieved, all of which require a ramp, or a system of ramps, as the only method available to the ancient Egyptians was man-power, and they had that in abundance.

The actual method of ramps used is not known with any certainty, but it most likely started with a single ramp by which means the blocks could be hauled into position. The blocks were laid down in layers, each successive layer being a little smaller in area than the one below it to give the pyramid its shape. As the blocks are layed onto a level surface, the same height as the ramp, no lifting was required, only hauling of the sledges. Removing the blocks from the sledge may have involved no more than dragging the block off the sledge. The entire pyramid could have been built using this simple system without a single block actually having to be lifted off the ground! No alien technology required. Very smart people these Egyptians.

As each successive layer was laid the ramp would need be heightened, and lengthened so as not to be too steep. Eventually this method would reach a limit where the size and construction of the ramp would be nearly as complex as the pyramid. The easiest way around this problem is to curve the ramp around the pyramid as the pyramid increased in height.

Finally, all that remained was the placing of the top stone, followed by the placing and fitting of the smooth white blocks. As the facing stones were placed so the ramp could be removed as they worked their way back down. The pyramid required a certain amount of interior design and construction for the burial chambers, and this was no easy task. The blocks that protected the burial chamber were 50 ton blocks of granite. Even with the huge teams of men at their disposal and a system of ropes and overseers guiding them, it would have been a difficult and dangerous task. There are still marks visible on the blocks and in the interior of the pyramid that were used to guide the blocks into position. Difficult yes, impossible no.

It was men that built the pyramids, make no mistake. Do not underestimate the intelligence of the ancient Egyptians or the trained manpower that was at their disposal. It was a colossal effort of team work taking 80 years to complete.

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