The Fourteenth Dynasty

Some scholars put the fourteenth dynasty in the middle kingdom with 11th dynasty, 12th dynasty and 13th dynasty. Other scholars put it in overlap figure between the thirteenth dynasty and fifteenth dynasty through what was called the Second Intermediate Period ( Age of the decline in the arts and and decrease of the skilled workers ).

The rulers of the fourteenth dynasty probably ruled from Avaris in eastern delta in the same time with the rulers of the Thirteenth Dynasty. The origin of its rulers maybe a Semitic origin, and this dynasty take about one hundred years of age.

There are about 76 rulers or more (according to Manetho) who set at the throne from that dynasty. List of its pharaohs found in Turin Papyrus.

The scholars recorded some known kings of that dynasty like Nehesi who ruled from Avaris and his name were found there. Other known king of that dynasty is Merdjefare his name found in eastern Delta also. There are other unknown kings from the fourteenth dynasty nothing found related to them except there names like Sewadjkare, Nebdjefare, Webenre, Khakherewre, Sehebre and Nebefawre. There is no more discovers or monuments bact to this dynasty.

Turin Papyrus

Turin Papyrus

Pharaohs Dynasties or Egyptian Dynasties

The name pharaohs which describe any king of Ancient Egypt is called by the later Greeks: the origin of that name came from the Egyptian per-aa, which mean ‘great house’. Most families of the Egyptian pharaohs and Egyptian queens are put in dynasties.

There are less sources about the earliest Egyptian pharaohs, so all information about them were just suggestions. No kings names recorded before 3100 BCE, so there period called Prehistoric by the historians. And most of the scholars mentioned that the Ancient Egypt civilization are generated from the civilization points or cities which were spread in the Egyptian regions before the predynastic or prehistoric period. This predynastic pionts like Naqada in Sohag, Badari in Assiut and Der Tasa.

Manetho, who lived in Egypt in the Hellenistic period divided the ancient Egyptian history into 30 dynasties. He begins with the year 3000 BCE and end with the year 343 BC with the king Nectanebo II. Nowadays the scholars compare Manetho's source with the records sources of the remained monuments and agreed that the number of all dynasties is 31.

By the efforts of the French scholars [Champollion] who discovered the symbols of the Rosetta Stone, the ancient Egyptian history became clear like the sun of Ankhenaten.

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Aswan monuments.

Power of the new kingdom

Ahmose I (1570–1546 BC)

Ahmose, whose name signifies "Child of the Moon," was certainly not of Theban origin. The moon was the heavenly habitation of the Egyptian Hermes, Thut, who upon earth was invoked by his disciples and adorers as "the thought and will" of the sun god Ra, his heavenly father, in his temple, in the midst of the frequently mentioned and much celebrated Ibis-town of Khmun-Hermopolis, on the left hand of the stream in Middle Egypt. According to ancient custom and usage, the name of this god, and that of his shining emblem in heaven, was with design chosen for the baptismal name of King Ahmose and of his mother "Aahhotep", "the moonly", and also of their offspring Thutmes, whose sovereignty ushered in the fortunate times of the eighteenth dynasty.

Ahmose attacked his enemies by land and sea, conquered the chief seat of their strength, the fortress Auaris, so celebrated in history, and pursued the people of the foreigners far beyond the boundary of Egypt as far as the Canaanitish town Sheruhan. This place will be mentioned later, in the accounts of the wars of King Thutmes III. against Kanaan and Naharain as a resting place on the road from Egypt to the fortress of Gaza.

It is not passed over in silence in Holy Scripture, since Sheruhan is expressly mentioned among the towns which fell to the lot of the inheritance of the tribe of Simeon in the South. In the tomb of the second Ahmose with the surname Pen Nukheb, this country, in which the King fought his Eastern battles, and in which Sheruhan was situated, is designated by its general name. It is the same Zahi, or Zaha, which was before mentioned.

In his tomb Ahmose is made to say, "My early life was passed in the time of the defunct King Ahmose, and of the defimct King Amenhotep I., and the defunct King Thutmes I., and the defunct King Thutmes I, and was finished in the time of Thutmes III. May he live long.' He then continues: I have reached a fortunate old age. I was during my existence in the favor of the king, and was rewarded by his Holiness, and was beloved by the royal court. And a divine woman gave me a further reward, the defunct great queen Makara (Hashop), because I had brought up her daughter, the great queen's daughter, the defunct Noferura."

It was only such a treaty, founded on the concession and recognition of these rights, which enabled the enterprising Ahmose, after the death struggle for the expulsion of the foreigners, to secure himself against insurrection and jealous opposition in the interior of the country, and to lead his veteran warriors from Patoris upon a campaign against the rebellious negroes on the southern frontier of the country.

Taking advantage of the weakness of the empire during the foreign dominion in the north, the widely spread tribes of To Chont on the Nubian districts of the south threw off the ancient yoke of the Pharaohs, and perhaps even set up an independent empire in the hot valleys near the dangerous cataracts of the Nile, which the kings of the twelfth dynasty had step by step wrung from their dusky neighbors. Ahmose, the chief of the sailors, has already related to us how Ahmose the king came out victorious from many struggles, in which a king named Tetan offered an obstinate resistance.

So now not only the two halves of the empire were again reunited under the powerful sceptre of the Pharaoh, but the south was again subjected to Egyptian supremacy. Now at last had the time of leisure arrived, which allowed the king, according to the good old custom, to prove his gratitude, as a beloved son of the Gods, by embellishing and extending their temples.

During the long dominion of the foreigners ' the temples had fallen into decay since the times of our forefathers, and the Pharaoh Ahmose, in the twenty-second year of his reign, gave the command to reopen the deserted quarries in the Arabian chain of mountains, to draw therefrom limestone for the building of the temples in Memphis, Thebes, and the other principal cities of the empire. According to ancient prescribed usage, which had already been practiced by the scribes in the reign of one of the Amenemhats of the twelfth dynasty, the fact was brought to the knowledge of the then existing and future generations by two rock tablets in the quarries of Toora and Maassara, in the neighborhood of the future town of the Khalifs, in the city of Cairo.

The engraved words read thus :

"In the twenty-second year of the reign of King Ahmose, his Holiness gave the order to open anew the rock chambers, and there to cut out the best white stone (limestone) of the hill country (of the name of) An, for the houses of the Gods of endless years' duration, for the home of the divine Ptah in Memphis, for Amon, the gracious god in Thebes..and for all the other monuments, which his Hohness carried out. The stone was drawn by bullocks, which were brought and given over to the foreign people of the Fenekh."

It was only such a treaty, founded on the concession and recognition of these rights, which enabled the enterprising Ahmose, after the death struggle for the expulsion of the foreigners, to secure himself against insurrection and jealous opposition in the interior of the country, and to lead his veteran warriors from Patoris upon a campaign against the rebellious negroes on the southern frontier of the country.

See Ahmose wife:

Queen Nofretari

Ahhotep I (1560- 1530 BCE)

Ahhotep I (1560- 1530 BCE), Ancient Egyptian queen from the Seventeenth dynasty, Tao I was her father and Tetisheri was her mother. She is the wife and the sister of the pharaoh Tao II in the same time. It was believed that she was the mother of the Egyptian pharaohs Ahmose I and Kamose.

Some historians believed that Ahhotep I the founder of the dynasty 18. But no doubt that Ahmose Ebana was the founder of the dynasty, because he was drive out the Hyksos from the Egypt land.

She died in 1530BC after long life [about 90 years old], her tomb at Thebes beside Kamose in Aswan. Her tomb consist of fly and bracelets (three golden fly and and golden bracelets). Her tomb was discovered in 1859AD in Thebes near the Valley of the Kings [in Dra Abu el-Naga]. Her mummy found in bad affection in the coffin.

The coffin of Ahhotep IThe coffin of Ahhotep I

Queen Ahhotep's bracelet
Queen Ahhotep's bracelet

It was suggessted that Ahhotep I led the army against the Hyksos. That suggesst came from some weapons found with the jewelry in her tomb.

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Queen Ankhesenamun
Amenhotep II
Thutmose I

Seventeenth Dynasty

Seventeenth Dynasty appeared during the Hyksos rule in Upper Egypt by Theban princes who start the war against the Hyksos rulers. The chronicler Manetho called that period the Seventeenth Dynasty.

The Seventeenth Dynasty at the end of the second intermediate period (1782–1570) and before the beginning of the new kingdom (1550–1070BC). It contained from 15 Theban kings including Tao I the first known king in the dynasty and his son Tao II who was the father of Kamose. All that three kings fight the Hyksos rulers tell the beginning of the dynasty 18.

Tao I

Seventeenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt history located before the new kingdom and in the end of the Second Intermediate Period (1782–1570). There are three known pharaohs in the dynasty 17, Tao I, Tao II and Kamose (1573–1570). The first pharaoh of this dynasty is Tao I there little information about Tao I and his reign is obscure reign. Tao I was born in 1656 BC and died about 1580. It is said that he was the son of Intef VII (successor of Intef VI). Some scholars believed that Tao I was one of the family of Ahmose.

After the death of Tao I the throne went to his son Tao II. The historical sources was very miserly about the life and the reign of the pharaoh, and that maybe suggest that he ruled for a few months or one year just.

His tomb is unknown but it suggested that his tomb in Karnak.