Ramses V (c. 1148-1144 BC)
The Death of Ramses V:
In 1888 French Egyptologist Georges Daressy discovered the tomb of Ramses V, the fourth pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, while excavating in the Valley of the Kings. Archaeologists later determined that Ramses V had died in 1141 BC at the age of 35 after reigning only four years. His mummy provided an explanation for Ramses’ short tenure. It revealed a face covered with pustules characteristic of smallpox.
The Wilbour Papyrus (Gardiner 1948; cf. Katary 1989), dealing with land tenancy in Middle Egypt dunng the reign of Ramses V.
The great Wilbour papyrus in the Brooklyn Museum, dated in year 4 of Ramses V reign gives an account of taxing. Its main text records the measurement and assessment of fields extending from near Crocodilonpolis (Medinet el-Fayyum) southwards to a little short of the modern town of El-Minya, a distance of some 90 miles. Taxes were calculated, in part, from flood levels indicated by marks on stone building lining the river., the Nilometres.
How the king infected with the smallpox?
During the New Kingdom (18-20th dynasties), when the Egyptian Empire expanded to its greatest geographical extent by far, with extensive conquests and expeditions in Africa and Asia. And its believed the smallpox had spread during this extent of the kingdom.
And exactly during the reign of Ramses V, Egypt was in a civil war and was attacked by enemies from the north; if the pustular eruption of Ramses V was from smallpox, it could represent a smallpox outbreak from imported cases because of war rather than regional endemic disease. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that only three mummies in that period had similar lesions.