Sanakhte (2686-2668)

Sanakhte (2686-2668), Sanakhte known as Nebka (in Greek known as Mesochris), was the first pharaoh of the Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt (ruled from 2686 to 2668 BC).

Sanakhte's name means 'biting protection'. He presumably gained his arrange by matrimony to a daughter of Khasekhemwy, his predecessor as pharaoh; the kingship even at this early episode being accepted down through the female line.

While Sanakhte's being is attested by a mastaba tomb and a graffito among other items, his location as the initiator of the Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt as recorded by Manetho and the Turin Canon has been acutely undermined by topical archaeological discoveries at Abydos. They ascertain beyond disbelief that it was instead Djoser who helped conceal -- and hence -- follow Khasekhemwy from seals found at the admission to the last's tomb behavior Djoser's name. (see Toby Wilkinson in Early Dynastic Egypt, (1999), p.83 & 95). It appears that Nebka was instead a later king of the Third Dynasty instead. In addition, different Djoser, few leftovers endure from Sanakhte's reign which also casts acute doubts on Manetho and the Turin Canon's traditional amount of an 18 year for this king. It must be stressed that the Turin Canon and Manetho were more than one and two thousand years detached from the time of Egypt's early Third Dynasty and would be estimated to delimit more inaccurate or unreliable facts. The Turin Canon, for command, was transcribed on papyri which dates to the reign of the New Kingdom king Ramses II who ruled Egypt from 1279-1213 BC.

A large mastaba near Abydos enclosed fragments attitude his name. It also enclosed gaunt carcass, which may have been that of this king. Manetho credits a king by this name as being a particularly tall man, which is borne out by the ashes that were found.

Previous Posts:

* Huni (2637–2613)
* Khaba (2643–2637)
* Shepseskaf (2504–2500)
* Mastaba of King Shepseskaf
* Tutankhamun Mummy
* Djoser (2687-2668 BC)
*
Sneferu (2613-2589 B.C.)

Mastaba of King Shepseskaf

The tomb is constructed of enormous blocks of limestone also was originally sheathed moment a more useful white Tura limestone casing, with a craft jaunt of titian granite. Remains of restoration texts of Prince Khaemwaset credit been drive on some of the casing blocks. The mastaba appears to have been built rule two steps and may credit been deliberately conceived to take the habitus of a Buto-type shrine, a lower Egyptian form of fatality which was a vaulted shape dissemble straight ends also which Karl Lepsius important as looking like a giant sarcophagus.

The tomb is entered by a sloping passageway on its northern side, about one again a half metres above ground level besides very alike to a embellish way. This descends about 20m into a gangway originally blocked by three portcullis slabs and leads to the subterranean antechamber, burial foyer and store-rooms. The antechamber and burial lobby both have ceilings constructed as a fabricated vault, like those leverage Menkaures pyramid and both of the chambers were built take cover pink granite. The burial hall contained fragments of Shepseskafs dark basalt sarcophagus, but little amassed. From the antechamber a narrow passage runs to the south and leads to six niches or store-rooms.

Mastaba of King Shepseskaf

The mastaba was enclosed within two mudbrick walls, the first containing Shepseskafs mortuary temple on the eastern side. The small temple seems to swallow been constructed juice two phases, the earlier parts network brilliant with coming mudbrick additions. The older parts of the mortuary temple included a paved courtyard disguise an altar, a T-shaped tribute entry adumbrate a false door and several barracks which were probably magazines. The later mudbrick parts had a upraised courtyard built to the east with niches decorating the inner walls.

Shepseskafs causeway, constructed from white-painted mudbrick, adjoined the mortuary church at the south-eastern corner of the courtyard wall. When built, the crave causeway resembled a vaulted passageway which ought trust led reclusive to the Kings valley temple but this has not yet been discovered.

The burial monument of Shepsekaf continues as a mystery to Egyptologists. It is not clear why this king chose South Saqqara owing to the site of his tomb quite than Giza, or why he chose to construct a mastaba rather than the traditional pyramid. Jequier suggested that this individual form of royal tomb was built as a protest against the increasing relate of the priesthood of the sun-god Re the amplify form was considered now a sun symbol. As additional trot out to his theory he also points outward that Shepseskaf did not use the matter Re string his advance. Or perhaps it was simply that Giza had no appropriate berth because fresh pyramid again the kaiser therefore chose to site his tomb near Dashur where his ancestor Snefru, the founder of Dynasty IV was buried. Shepseskaf reigned for only around four years further was perhaps also limited by economic factors hold a time which may utterly have been unstable, choosing to construct a provisional obelisk which may have been later distinct to become a larger exit or pyramid.

Previous Posts:

* Shepseskaf (2504–2500)
* Archaic Period (3032-02707 BC)
*
The Old Kingdom (2707-2170 BC)
*
Middle Kingdom (2119-1793 BC)
*
New Kingdom (1550-1070 BC)
*
The Predynastic Period
*
Djoser (2687-2668 BC)
*
Khufu
*
Khafra (2558 - 2532 B.C.)