Djedefre

Djedefre or Radjedef was the 3rd king of the fourth Dynasty of ancient Egyptian rulers and reigned the country from 2528 BC till 2520 BC. He was the son of Khufu from one of his lesser married woman, and killed his brother, Prince Kewab, who was the lawful heir to the enthrone. He married Hetepheres , who was the widow of his murdered brother. His main wife was Kentetenka. His pyramid was found at Abu Rowash in the City of Giza.

Kheops was followed by Djedefre, his oldest enduring son. The mother of Djedefre is obscure.

He married his half-sister Hetepheres II, which might have been to legalise his claims to the enthrone if his mother was among Kheops’ lesser wives. He as well had different wive, Khentet-en-ka with whom he had (at any rate) three sons, Setka, Baka and Hernet and one daughter, Neferhetepes.

The Turin King-list accredits him with a rule of eight years, but the highest acknowledged year cited to during this rule was the year of the eleventh cattle count. This would mean that Djedefre reigned for leastwise eleven years, if the cattle counts were anual, or twenty-one years if the cattle counts were biennal.

He was the first king to apply the title "Son of Ra" as division of his titular which is seen as an indicant of the arising popularity of the cult of the solar god Ra.

He carried on the move north by building his bare pyramid at Abu Rawash, some 8 kilometer northward of Giza. It is the northern most division of the Memphite necropolis.

Radjedef was the 3rd king of the fourth Dynasty and reigned the country from 2528 BC till 2520 BC. He was the son of Khufu from among his lesser wives, and belted down his own brother, Prince Kewab, who was the lawful heir to the throne. He married Hetepheres , who was the widow of his dispatched brother. His main wife was Kentetenka. His pyramid was attained at Abu Rowash in Giza.

Khufu was followed by his oldest son Djedefre. He married his stepsister Hetepheres II, believably to get a claim to the enthrone since his mother was one of his father's secondary wives whose name isn't cognised.

Beside his half-sister Djedefre as well had additional wives, and with one of them, Khentet-en-ka, he had leastwise 3 sons, Setka, Baka and Hernet and one daughter (Neferhetepes).

The Turin King-list accredits him with a rule of eight years which is in line with the appraisals made by the Egyptologists now.

Radjedef was the first king to use the entitle "Son of Ra" among his others, which is ascertained as an indicant of the arising popularity of the cult of the solar deity Ra from Heliopolis. This god had came about in a king's call already in the 2nd dynasty (Nebre/Reneb).

He moved north to construct his pyramid, to Abu Rawash, some 8 kilometer to the north of Giza, and the reason can be that there was no suitable region left at the site. He named it "The pyramid is a Sehedu-star". The tomb was bare when he died and today its foundation is dug out to get excessiveness for visitors.

The pyramid area was confined by a wall and at the NW corner a littler satellite pyramid was constructed, credibly for the king's first queen.

The work stopped when almost 20 courses were in place, and some encasing of granite is allay on the spot. What sort of pyramid it was conjectural to be isn't clear and the constructed angle got by putting casing blocks i localize says that it was far steeper than the pyramids at Giza. One theory is that he had a step pyramid in mind, or a mastaba. Approximations of the height hence varies from fifty-seven to sixty-seven metres calculated by assist from the base side that's known by its length - 106 meter.

A causeway chairing down to the Nile, a debase of 1.700 meters, is going in the centering northeast by the monument ascribable the topography. It's still inviolate in some divisions and partly hewn out forthwith from the stone and arising 10-12 meters above the environs.

His mortuary temple position at the south side of the pyramid and was a structure of brick mayhap desolated when the king died, and not meant as a enshrine from the looks of it. At the side was a pit for a funeral boat just alike his father had at Giza. The inquiry why he actuated from Giza has been argued and one theory is that he came closer to Heliopolis on the other side of the Nile. A feud within the family about the succession has as well been arouse, but this hasn't been essayed in any way. Considering his face (if it's a portraiture) he has alike looks as his kid brother who became the next pharaoh.

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Pharaoh Khasekhemwy

The fifth Pharaoh of the second Dynasty was probably responsible the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. Not much is cognised about him, save the fact that he attempted monumental military campaigns. A statue of him which domiciles in the Cairo Museum, attests the first use of hard stone work on this period. He is responsible for the building of a large granite door jamb inside the temple of Hierakonpolis, and for the constructing of many of the mortuary composites at both Abydos and Saqqarah.

The greatest figure from the 2nd dynasty and believably the whole Early Dynastic Time, was pharaoh Khasekhemwy. He actually should have the title "Unifier of the 2 countries".

After gaining the conflict against the North that had began on the reign of his predecessor. He decided Hierakonpolis in the far southland to be his capital and it was the above all time the united Egypt was reigned from there. It took some attempt to win the war and inscriptions from granite watercrafts ascertained in his capital tells about his conflicts with the North, accounted as "rebels".

Being diplomatic he didn't favor any of the primary gods Horus and Set when the military conflict was over. He merely put them both atop of his serek, thereby desiring to make peace and arrange to the country. He as well changed his name assigning to it an extra -WY making it tell - "The Two Powers Come Forward", rather than individual one (Set) that he had before. In aftermath he also put a different commander's staff to his serek thereby attaining his new political view obvious.

He besides made a military campaign in to Egypt Nubia and acquired a new title: "superintendent of the foreign lands" that shows his concern to keep contact afield. His names has thus been discovered the whole way up to Byblos men in Syria. His tomb a little apart the others in Abydos is a singular construction dissimilar any of the earlier memorials there. The design is a fairly (diplomatic) assortment between the northern manner mastaba-tombs and the traditional square constructions from the south. On top of completely he localized it on "neutral" ground some 100 meters away the old cemetery. He besides kept the custom from most of the earlier pharaohs by making an enclosing 1,8 km toward the Nile from his tomb, credibly for rites of his mortal cult.

The size was far greater then his predecessors: sixty-nine m in length and 10-17 m wide attained of surrounds a good two m high. When it was dug in 1900 it still contained 6 implements such chisels and woodcutting creatures made of copper. In the midst was the grave chamber constitutional stone, the first of its form. The ability to handle this material was shown for the first time in Egyptian history by the statues of Khasekhemwy that have endured from a find in Hierakonpolis. If they are portraitures more than idols images, the king appears to be a man with a ascertained look in his face, and a firm head, and this appears to have been the features of the king.

The most strikingly rest from him is the huge constructing he made at the capital Hierakonpolis. On the westerly side of the River Nile a bit into the desert lies the oldest recognized monumental constructing of sun-dried bricks in Egypt.

It is the supposed Fortress with its gigantic construction. The purpose of it is fairly arguable and varies from a fort to protect the capital from foemen to a ceremonial inclosure for dissimilar rituals connected to idolising of gods or morgue cults the dead pharaohs. The measures are around 67 by 57 meters and while in a state of ruin - the monumental walls are of attributes not found in Egypt ever since - 5 metres thick and still today abiding up to eleven metres high.

The most singular remain believed to be his is the very large rectangular enclosing at West Saqqarah and today called Gisr el-Mudir. Excavated in some localizes on the 1990s it turned out to accommodate a rock cut wall. In some positions the height was 4,5 meters in 15 cores and the base width of 15 meters proposes a much bigger height when it was completed. The building measures around 600 x 340 meters with an becharm from the south side. There is no decipher of any constructions within the walls which are built with aligns of hewn rocks and a core made of rubble and sand. This filling has broke rests from dynasty 2, maybe indicating that the constructing is older than Djoser's Step Pyramid nearby. The primary of the excavaitin appraisals the age to be from the middle to the late 2nd dynasty. Gisr el-Mudir has a closing resemblance to his ceremonial region present at Abydos, but this was constructed of mud bricks.

The association to Djoser has been shown by determinations outside the door of Khasekhemwy's tomb at Abydos where administers of seals with Djosers name came to hand in the 1990s, excavated by German archaeologists. This is a accented indication that he attended of the funeral of Khasekhemwy and was his (believably immediate) heir.

Khasekhemwy's endowed politics made the different divisions of society brandish and his work was a landmark in the developing of Egyptian history. He posed the ground to the golden days that were to arrive, and the coming coevalses were in big debt to him for their wealth. It is conceivable, but not certain, that Djoser (his son or step son) absorbed office and began a new chapter in the history of human race by making a new typecast of grave memorials later to be called - the Pyramids.

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