Grand Gilded Sphinx Statue Atop a Egyptian Plinth
Grand Gilded Sphinx Statue atop a Egyptian Plinth

The Spirit of Tutankhamen: Egyptian Oval Mirror Wall Sculpture
The Spirit of Tutankhamen: Egyptian Oval Mirror Wall Sculpture

Egyptian Torch Offering Table Lamp - Set of Two
Egyptian Torch Offering Table Lamp - Set of Two

Temple of Luxor: Grand-Scale Egyptian Urn Statue
Temple of Luxor: Grand-Scale Egyptian Urn Statue

Wings of Isis Egyptian Revival Sculptural ClockTemple of Luxor: Grand-Scale Egyptian Urn Statue

Senusret II (1897-1878)

King Senusret II (1897 BC-1878BC) or Senwosret II or Sesostris II was the fourth pharaoh of the Dynasty 12. He was the first pharaoh who thought in drainage canal in Faiyum between bahr Yusuf and Lake Moeris. The purpose of Senusret II's project was to increase the amount of cultivable land here. he maybe reign of only ten Years as some scholars believed.

Some historians think that King Senusret II = “Pharaoh Khakheperre” of Dynasty twelve who ordered to settle Israel in Goshen at “Fayoum”. An Eternal historical documentation appears in the drawn message, documented by Joseph, on the north wall of the tomb of Count Khnumhotep II at Beni-Hassan, Egypt, as a “Point in Time” -- “In the year 6 of King Khakheperre”.

The pyramid of Senusret II

Senusret II built his "Shining Pyramid" At the entrance of the Fayoum, of limestone and mud-brick at El Lahun. After the failure of his Dahshur Pyramid, King Amenemhet III abandoned it and started over with a new pyramid located near the modern village of Hawara el-Makta, not far from Lahun.

The pyramid of Senusret II at El-LahunThe pyramid of Senusret II at El-Lahun
(the royal tombs of the family appear in the north)

North of the pyramid, there are eight rock tombs of the royal family and a small pyramid of the queen with burial chamber.

Pectoral with the Name of King Senwosret II, it was found among the jewelry of Princess Sithathoryunet (sit-hathor-you-net) in a special niche of her underground tomb beside the pyramid of King Senwosret II at Lahun. Hieroglyphic signs are amply used in the design, and the whole might actually be read as a text saying, Ò The god of the rising sun grants life and dominion over all that the sun encircles for one million one hundred thousand years [i.e., eternity] to King Khakheperre (Senwosret II).

The arts in the reign of Senusret II, (Princess Sithathoryunet's Pectoral):

This centerpiece of a princess’s necklace is composed around the throne name of King Senwosret II. It was found among the jewelry of Princess Sithathoryunet (sit-hathor-you-net) in a special niche of her underground tomb beside the pyramid of Senwosret II at Lahun. Hieroglyphic signs are amply used in the design, and the whole might actually be read as a text saying, The god of the rising sun grants life and dominion over all that the sun encircles for one million one hundred thousand years [i.e., eternity] to King Khakheperre [Senwosret II].

The deity of the rising sun is present in the two falcons that flank the name of the king, sun disks on their heads and the circular hieroglyphic sign for odominion over time and space’ clutched in their claws. Royal cobras, whose tails encircle the sun disks, hold the king’s cartouche upright, and signs of life (ankhs) hanging from the looped cobra bodies also flank the royal name. The cartouche rests on the bent tops of palm fronds (signs for (year)) that are held by a kneeling Heh, god of eternity and sign for “one million.” A tadpole (sign for “one hundred thousand) dangles from the god’s right elbow.

The symbolism of the design, however, goes beyond this simple text. Notice that the whole group of figures rests on a rectangular bar that is characterized as a reed mat by vertical divisions. The Egyptians used such mats as floor covers for high-status people to sit on and as trays for offerings. This particular mat, decorated with zigzag lines signifying water, is actually a representation of the primeval water from which the earth rose at creation. With the water at the bottom and the sun disks at the top, the pectoral design depicts the world as the Egyptians knew it.

Also significant is the heraldic character of the symmetrical configuration. With pairs of identical figures and emblems facing each other across a central motto, the device is remarkably like a coat of arms of medieval European times. Like all heraldic ensigns, the pectoral proclaims a program: the program of Egyptian kingship. The pharaoh surrounded and protected by gods guarantees the ever renewed creation of life and order in perpetuity.

The pectoral is a masterpiece of Egyptian jewelry making at its peak. The goldsmith surely from the royal workshop set 372 precisely cut pieces of semiprecious stone into tiny cloisons that he had formed from bands of sheet gold set on edge and fused to gold backing plates. The various colored stones bring this filigree of gold to brilliant life.

How to travel to the pyramid of Senusert II?

Senusert II’ pyramid at Illahun (Lahun pyramid) which you can travel there by train or by air.

Ramses III

King Ramses III (who ruled between roughly 1190 to 1150 B.C.E.), was the son and heir of Sethnakht who became the first King of the 20th Dynasty. Sethnatkht’s path to the throne is unclear. It is possible that there was a family relationship between him and Ramses II, but it is just as likely that he grabbed power when the opportunity arose just as Ay and Horemheb had before him.

Cartouche of Ramses III
Cartouche of Ramses III

Ramses III made his own claim to the throne clear by having the words “I did not take my office by robbery, but the crown was set upon my head willingly” inscribed on one of the temple pylons. Although the foriegn wars of King Ramsses III, along his life, even in peaceful times there was wide spread corruption and internal strife in Egypt. This unrest might have led to the harem plot, which occurred later in his reign, when several of his ministers and his wife Queen Ty aimed to have him assassinated during the Opet festival celebrations, intending to make Queen Ty’s son king.

Although the wide use of magic and spells, the plot appears to have failed as the culprits were caught and forced to commit suicide, but as Ramses appears to have died before their trial was complete, who is to say that they did not succeed in killing him after all. He was buried in the Valley of the Kings (KV 11) in an elaborate tomb that was initially intended for his father.

Wars and the Military Power of Ramsses III

Ramses III emulated Ramses II in many ways and he named several of his own sons after those of Ramses II. The original Prince Khaemwaset was one of the more famous sons of Ramses II as he became High Priest of Ptah but this Prince Khaemwaset although he also became a priest of Ptah did not rise to the same heights as his namesake. Nevertheless, he did hold high office and in his youth was ‘fan-bearer to the right of the King’. He was one of Ramses III older sons and it is thought that Queen Tyti may have been his mother but his age at death has never been determined.

During his long period, Ramses III fought several campaigns including the battle with the sea peoples, which is shown on the walls of inner walls of the first pylon. Ramsses III records the following encounter with such foreigners: “The foreign countries made a conspiracy in their islands.…They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them. Their confederation was the Philistines, Tjeker, Shekelesh, Denyen, and Weshesh, lands united.” – In the continuation of this record, Ramses III claims to have defeated all of these forces handily, but that’s likely a bit of bravado, or propaganda.

King Ramses III left us not only a written account of his battles with these foreigners, but also pictures – one of which is this drawing found in his mortuary temple, depicting a sea battle with these foreigners.

For two thousand years Egyptian civilization was second to none. By the time of Rameses III, however, the world was going through great upheavals. The long period of stability in the Middle East brought about by Thutmose III, and continued by Rameses II's victories over the Hittites, was about to come to an end. But Egypt was not about to give up and sink into oblivion, not yet anyway. There was still one more moment of glory for Egypt. During the first few years of his reign, Rameses III brought unity to the country. In his fifth year when the Libyans attacked, Egypt was well prepared. An organized and efficient Egyptian army easily defeated them. Ramses III also defeated other armies that threatened Egypt from the sea. Rameses III had two principle wives plus a number of minor wives and it was one of these minor wives that led to his destruction. She hatched a plot to kill him so she could put her son on the throne. Rameses III’s death marks the end of an era. He had ruled for 31 years and was the last of the great Pharaohs. Egypt now began to suffer economic problems and was unable to exploit the revolution of the Iron Age because Egypt had no sources of iron ore. But the most important factor in Egypt’s decline was a break down in society. There were disputes between officials and governors and infighting between Upper and Lower Egypt. The priesthood became very powerful and eventually they took control of the government. From this time onwards others would determine the destiny of Egypt. The Assyrians, Persians, Greeks and eventually the Romans were to become the lead players in Egypt’s destiny.

Temple of Ramsses III (Mortuary temple )

Before entering the mortuary temple visitors pass under the windowed gateway where Ramses had his pleasure rooms and enter an open space which was once a magnificent garden. Facing, is the deeply carved first pylon, which shows Ramses fighting imaginary battles against the enemies of Egypt but on the inner walls are scenes of battles that he really did fight and win. To the right of the gateway is the temple that Hatshepsut built and on the left is the temple of the Divine Adoratrix, which was added at a later date.

Temple of Ramses III at Medinet HabuTemple of Ramses III at Medinet Habu

Inside the first pylon is a large open courtyard, and on the northern side stands rather fat-legged statues of Ramses in the form of Osiris with wives at his feet. Unfortunately, many of these statues were removed to make way for a Coptic Church, which remained inside the temple until the nineteenth century.

In the second courtyard, a series of reliefs show scribes completing a tally of the dead after a battle with the Libyans. This series is interesting as it starts with the counting of hands, which confused the issue as each enemy had two, and finishes by counting penises of which they only had one.
The temple has a chequered history. Apart from being plastered over with mud and turned into a Coptic monastery, when the Egyptian economy began to crumble it was the scene of a labour demonstration. Workers from Deir el Medina gathered there when they went on strike over their lack of pay and poor conditions of employment. Was this the first organised labour dispute? When social order broke down even further, gangs of Libyan bandits roamed the area and when they were attacked, the entire population of Deir el Medina abandoned their town and took refuge within the temple walls.

Ramesses III Family:

Prince Amun-her-Khopshef (her tomb QV55):

Ernesto Schiapaelli discovered this tomb during the Italian expedition’s second diggings in the Valley 1903. Although, like many other tombs it had been looted probably not long after its completion, its structure and decorations were in good condition. The basic shape of the tomb is similar to that of Prince Khaemwaset, a straight corridor leading first to an antechamber and then to the burial chamber. There are single annexes leading from both rooms.

The main theme of the tomb paintings is Ramses III introducing his son to various gods and there are some fine paintings of him wearing a serpent crown. Amun-her-Khepshef is shown with his hair in a side lock, like that shown below, which was a style worn by children. From this, we can assume that he, like many of his brothers, died in childhood and although estimates of his age at death vary, it is likely that it occurred when he was around fifteen years old.

He was not one of Ramses III senior sons but he did hold many titles and is shown both in his tomb and in the Medinet Habu as being a fan-bearer on the right-hand side of his father, which was a position of importance that several of his brothers held.

At the rear of this tomb is a case which holds a mummified foetus that myth ascribed to a miscarriage his mother (possibly Queen Tyti) had on hearing the news of his death. This is an interesting tale but that is all it is because later studies have discovered that the foetus was moved there from another tomb early in the 20th Century.

Prince Amun-her-Khopshef (QV55)

Ramses I (1315-1313 B.C.)

King Rameses I (1315-1313 B.C.), first king of the 19th Dynasty, ruled only a year and four months and was too old to bear the burdens of kingship alone and thus to have been the Pharaoh of the Exodus.

How Ramesses I came to the throne?

Horemheb had no son so he appointed his chief minister, Paramesse, as his successor to reward Paramesse’s loyalty and because Peramesse had a son and grandson to follow him on the throne. Paramesse took the name Ramses I when he became pharaoh and founded the 19th dynasty.

After the reign of Horemheb (1348-1320 B.C) the 18th dynasty was over, after presented service to Egypt and the Hyksos, and the 19th dynasty began. The first ruler of the new dynasty was Rameses I. His reign of 2 years was succeeded by his son, Seti I who did much to restore Egypt's prestige. There was one campaign against the Libyans and he also campaigned in the east and restored Egyptian control over Palestine. Egypt came into conflict with the Hittites in Syria, but by the end of Seti I's reign, the two powers seemed to come to an understanding. More about Rameses I and Daily Life In Ancient Egypt here.

The tomb of Ramesses I (KV16):


Ramesses I ruled just one year and afew months, so his tomb came smaller than the other tombs of the dynasty 19 of Ancient Egypt history.

It contain just two descending staircases link with sloping corridor which lead to the burial chamber of Ramesses I.

KV16 Like the tomb of Horemheb (KV57), it was decorated with the Book of Gates.

Osiris (oh-SIGH-ris) was the Egyptian god of the afterlife and rebirth. He ruled the netherworld, and his son, Horus, ruled the world of the living. Every reigning pharaoh was identified with Horus and was thought to become one with Osiris after death. At Abydos (ah-BYE-dos or AH-bee-dos), the place most sacred to Osiris, Egyptian kings built temples and funerary chapels so they would be identified with him. They believed that through carved images of themselves their spirits would be able to participate in the annual celebration of the myth of Osiris, during which Osiris was actually reborn, and by extension, they would be reborn as well. Whenever possible, non royal persons also attempted to participate by erecting chapels and stelae at Abydos (slide 33).

Originally this limestone relief was on the back wall inside a small chapel built by Seti I for his father, Ramesses I. In inscriptions on the chapel walls Seti declared, “I am the one who makes his name live” and “I will make him a place where his ka [spirit] can alight, drawn in outline and carved with the chisel”

Cartouches of Ramesses IThe scene is divided down the center. On the right Ramesses kneels and presents an offering of food and flowers to a cult symbol of Osiris that resembles a head covered with a cloth or wig and surmounted by two tall ostrich plumes. The symbol is supported by a shaft set into a stand equipped with sledge runners and carrying poles. Encircling the shaft are small figures of deities and the king. Actual cult symbols in the time of Seti and Ramesses were probably made of rich materials. Behind the Osiris symbol is the figure of Isis (EYE-sis), wife of Osiris. She holds an ankh in one hand and raises the other in a gesture of protection.

The poses and arrangement of the figures on the left side of the scene are nearly identical to those on the right. Seti kneels and presents a small kneeling statue of himself offering a jar of myrrh to a cult symbol identical to the one on the right. Behind the symbol stands a falcon-headed figure of Horus, son of Isis and Osiris. He holds an ankh and raises the other hand protectively. The sense of balance is reinforced by the triangular composition.

Reliefs from the two side walls of the chapel are displayed with the central one in the Museum. One shows Ramesses, his face exhibiting signs of old age, receiving offerings of food and drink. In the other, he and his family make offerings to Osiris, Isis, and Hathor.

Senusret I

King Senusret I (1971BC-1926BC), the second pharaoh of the dynasty 12. His father is Amenemhat I, and Nefertitanen was his wife, but Neferu was his sister and wife also, Neferu is the mother of Amenemhat II who successed Senusret I. In his rule the Residence city was constituted at el-Lisht.

Some historians thought that Senusret I is the pharaoh who arrogated Sarai for his wife, and they think that Sarai was Saenusret’s enatic half-sister (as well as being Abraham’s paternal half-sister) and it was common apply for Egyptian pharaohs to marry their (half-) sisters in order to advancement the kingship through the female line. But all that is Just a guess, and the fact is unknown as yet.

Senusret I Militarily Affairs:

Militarily amours, Senusret I pressed in Egypt Nubia (New Sudan) all the direction to the 3rd cataract and as well Constituted the avid fortress of Buhen. He exploited quarries and mines and ascertained the havens of the Libyan Desert and the imaginations in the Sinai. He constructed Kermeh fort in Egypt Nubia and determined operations at the mines of Wadi Halfa as well as regional diorite quarries. Copper was mined inward Wadi Hudi, and red granite was adopted of a quarry south of Aswan Egypt.

Senusret I wasn't concerned in sweeping conquest and confined his causes to the defence force of Egypt’s borders and to the development of usable resources. He also advertised trade with Crete and other Aegean islets and with Palestine and Syria.

The literary in the reign of Senusret I:

Elsewhere my belief that Egyptian literary documents should be allotted to the date to which they purport to belong, unless cogent argues can be adduced to the contrary‘. Both on general and exceptional grounds, hence, it seems probgble that the story of Sinuhe was written in the reign of Sesostris I, and is therefore contemporary with the events that it associates.

The form of the tale so intimately resembles other autobiographies that have been ascertained on the walls of tombs that it seems quite likely that its nucleus may be calculated from the tomb of a real Sinulie, who had led a life of adventure in Palestine and was afterward buried at Lisht’. Needless to say we are here on high-risk ground, and in such a casing no proof or disproof is strictly possible, unless an astonishing chance should bushel to us the tomb of Sinuhe himself. Even in this case we should doubtless find that literary elaboration had greatly changed the expression and the character of the archetype narrative, so that in its ceased state the story could not claim to be‘ more than “founded on fact”.The story of Sinuhe is evenhandedly straightforward.1 It portrays him addressing from his tomb and narrating events in his life. Sinuhe was a Middle Kingdom Egyptian official of the 12th dynasty (1938-1756 B.C.) who fled Egypt to Syria. As a custodial of Amenemhet’s harem, he went on an expedition to Libya. When he learned of the Pharaoh’s assassination he took flight, either because he was a coconspirator or as he dreaded false accusals. In all events, winds on the Nile blew him northward and he wandered through Palestine and Lebanon. He finally settled in southern Syria and married the oldest daughter of a captain in the region. Some years after, Pharaoh Sesostris I welcomed Sinuhe back to Egypt. The king forgave him and granted him gifts. From that point forward, Sinuhe remained in Egypt and was accorded an estimable burial.One tale of the dandiest Egyptian literary works were written on the age of Senusret I: "The Instructions of Amenemhet" and "The Story of Sinuhe". The former was written by Amenemhet I to his heir son Senusret I. The deceased Pharaoh assured his son in a dream that he was murdered by a bodyguard. He also warned Senusret not to become to close to anybody. Being Pharaoh was so a lonely job.

Building of Senusret I:

Within Egypt, he was a fecund builder, freshening up the temple of Re-Atum in Heliopolis. The famous white chapel appointments to his reign, and he is accredited with building the burden of the Karnak Composite itself. He likewise raised two obelisks there. Senusret I was active in restoring the Faiyum Egypt region, adding up to the irrigational memorials there.

He established a temple to Sekhmet-Hathor at IMU, today known as Kom el-Hisn, the Mound of the Fort, in the Delta. The temple was rectangular and arrested a bark chapel and Columns. He is as well credited with constructing 35 separate religious structures from the Faiyum of Egypt to the Delta. A stone stela built for a temple in Heliopolis and dating to Senusret I’s rule was copied by a scribe assisting king Amenhotep III (1391–1353). 5 hundred years old when copied, the stela disappeared. The copy argues a text in the form of a poem, rattling answering as a temple dedication commemorative an improver Established by Senwosret I, afforded with other elaborate Contributions.

The pedagogies of Amenemhet I date as well to his rule. His father was alleged to have dictated the Commands, a text that warns of the endangers of a weak monarch. This act is also known as Amenemhet’s directions or the Testament of Amenemhet.

Obelisk Senusert I:
Senusert I's Obelisk

Standing Stone in Lower Egypt (North)

The Obelisk (Obelisk art) of Senusert I at Mataria in the East of the Capital Cairo. Date to 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom dynasties.

The obelisk consisted to the On sun temple, differently know as Heliopolis to the Greece and romans.

Pyramid of Senusret I:

The Pyramid of Senusret I
The Pyramid of Senusret I was established in the age of the dynasty 12 in Lisht city, close the pyramid of Amenemhat I (his father)

It's have 4 faces pyramid, the height of the pyramid is 61.25 ms, and it's 105 ms in any side of it. Senusert I’ pyramid at Lisht in Upper Egypt which anybody can travel there by train or by Nile River cruise.

Related Posts:

Thutmose IV
Djoser or Zoser (2687-2668 BC)
Narmer (Menes)

Dendera (Inuit) 

Narmer (Menes)

Narmer or King Menes was the first Egyptian pharaoh. He was united the two parts of Egypt lands which was called Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. With that united Menes established the Old Kingdom in 3100 BC. The discover of his tomb was in 1897. There is believe that Menes ruled 62 years and the legend told that he killed by a hippopotamus.

Some historical records for Egyptian and Greece describe a period of civilization with a united Egypt under the King Menes in 3000 BC. While we often think of Egyptain civilization as suddenly flowering from nothing, and then the immediately building of the pyramids, there is a long prior period during which the Nile Valley was brought into cultivation, and societies and governments developed. This prior period encompassed the 0th and 1st Dynasties. It included the legendary kings. See Cartouche of Narmer and the other pharaohs here

Because the Nile River Valley became more settled, and the society life and communities grew into small towns and cities, a more complex mathematical system became necessary. With all things considered, it is no surprise that by the timeline of the First Dynasty we see the use of mathematical place values well into the thousands. The Pharaoh Narmer (also called King Mena or King Menes) united Tawi (the Two-Lands of Kemet) and was the founder of the dynasties. Of course, the concept of a pharaoh and dynasties came before Narmer from the Ta-Seti Nubia regions. The Narmer Palette, although simple, is very revealing.

Thus, some Egyptologists list Narmer as the first ruler of Dynasty 1 while others give the honor to Aha, placing the “Scorpion King” and Narmer in Dynasty 0. The First and Second Dynasties are generally referred to as the Archaic Period of Egypt. Perhaps Narmer was the first king in the world who united his home and establish strong empire.

Narmer palette:

King Narmer seem to be the pharaoh who united the two lands of Egypt based primarily on a shield-shaped sculpture called the Narmer Palette (one of the most attractions of ancient Egypt arts) that has been dated to 3150 – 3125 BC. The front side of the Narmer Palette shows King Narmer wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt in the act of striking an enemy from the marshlands. The rear side shows Narmer wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt (the Nile delta) as he inspects the bodies of headless enemies. When the Narmer Palette discovered?

King Narmer palette

The important of Narmer palette:

The Egyptian plaque or the palette of Narmer showing him wearing the White garland of Upper Egypt and the Red garland of Lower Egypt is believed to indicate that Narmer united Upper and Lower Egypt into a universal state. Other historical data indicates his central importance. Since the Narmer Palette has been dated to 3150 – 3125 BC we have chosen 3157 BC as the beginning of the universal state of a predynastic period that we will call Nile River civilization.

This palette show that Cloth and writing came at the same time, about 3000 B.C.E. That when Narmer (or Menes) of Upper Egypt (upriver to the south) conquered Lower Egypt (downriver to the north), thus unifying the kingdom. A large commemorative stone shows him about to bonk his kneeling rival over the head.

Djoser (2687-2668 BC)

King Djoser (2687-2668 BC), was the first pharaoh in the third dynasty as many scholars believed. They also think that queen Nimaethap was his mother and Khasekhemwy was his father.

Djoser may have fixed the southern bounders of Egypt in his reign. He also sent some expeditions to Sinai because the local inhabitants were subdued there.

Djoser’s reign lasted only 18 years, yet is remarkable in that it ushered in Egypt’s ‘golden age’ of monumental architecture. Not only were he and Imhotep able to organise the massive workforce required for building the pyramid, but they also initiated a belief that the pharaoh had eternal existence.

The step pyramid at SaqqaraThe step pyramid at Saqqara

During the reign of Djoser in the third dynasty (refer to the Cheat Sheet for a timeline), Egypt is said to have experienced seven years of famine because of particularly low annual floods. The pharaoh was held responsible for the situation because he was an intermediary between the people and the gods, and the famine was seen as punishment from the gods for the pharaoh not doing his job.

On the Island of Sehel in the south of Egypt, Ptolemy V (204–181 BC) commissioned a stela recording this famine and Djoser’s actions. Imhotep, the builder of the step pyramid, traced the source of the Nile to the island of Elephantine and the caves of Khnum.

He assured Djoser that renewed worship of Khnum would start the floods again. Khnum then appeared to Djoser in a dream. Djoser awoke and was pleased at the message. He passed a decree of an increase of taxes to be paid to the temple of Khnum

The Step Pyramid. In Saqqara where any one can travel by train, also the one can get there by taxi or by bus.

Thutmose I

His name Thutmose, written by the Greeks Thotraosis, means "Thut's child", I have already called attention to its meaning according to its derivation. The victories and wars of this king, who for the first time undertook a campaign in the East as far as the banks of the Euphrates, constitute the principal events of his history so far as the contemporary and later monuments have transmitted them to us.

The inscription we have already noticed from the tomb of the chief of the sailors Aahmes, mentions next a campaign of King Thutmose I. against the country of Khont-Hon-nofer, or “the nearer Hon-nofer” Perhaps I may be allowed on this occasion to offer a few words of explanation.

The lands on the South of Egypt, as well as their inhabitants, were designated in general terms as a mixture of dusky coloured races, known according to their situation, by particular names, which perhaps varied at different epochs. The countries which bordered on Egypt from the first cataract as far as Mount Barkal to the south, bore the general appellation of Ta-khont, or “the land of Khont” the capital of which (with its very celebrated temple of Amon) was Napata, situated at “the holy mountain,” Mount Barkal. The name of Khont-Hon-nofer, as appears to us, comprehended on the other hand, all the countries of the African continent, and included the countries and peoples situated to the West of the Nile as far as the Libyan north coast, while the expression Kush was confined to those regions which we at the present day call the Sudan. On a tract of this enormous extent there lived an almost innumerable mass of tribes, who belonged to an original pure ancient African stock, which we still at this day find in these countries; the black and brown negro races called Nahasi on the monuments. Among these, from the side of the sea, lighter coloured races of Semitic or Kushite origin had thrust themselves, who in the course of ages had settled in the valleys of the mountain districts between the Nile and Red Sea, the so-called An of Ta-Khont, which a later memorial of the time of the Ptolemies calls by the name of the Senti.

In alluding to the situation of these countries and the habitations of these peoples, we have in our works substituted for the Egyptian appellations Ta-Khont and Kush the better known names Nubia and Ethiopia, for Nahasi the term Negro, and for An the term "Kushites". To all these nations the Nile afforded the only great waterway, on which the hosts of the Pharaohs were transported to effect their landings at the harbours, in order to follow the enemy into the interior of their empire.

In spite of all the efforts of the inhabitants in these remote parts of the world, to beard the Egyptian kings and to destroy the monuments of the Pharaohs, so as annihilate all memorial of their tyrants, there are still traces enough left to give us information about the supremacy of the Egyptian kings in these countries. The name of Thutmose I. is not wanting here. The inscriptions on the rocks in the neighbourhood of the waterfalls of Kerman, in sight of Tombos, between the 20th and the 19th degree of latitude, have preserved the remembrance of the great deeds of this king. The longest of them, with the date of the fifteenth day of the month Paophi, of the second year of the reign of this Pharaoh, exalts to heaven the praises of the warlike activity of the first Thutmose, and relates in a long succession the general names of the conquered peoples, who in the south as well as in the north were subjected to his supremacy. The holy letters which are engraved on the stone relate how Thutmose I had taken possession of the throne of Horus, to extend the boundary marks of the Thebais,' how 'in the territory of the Theban quarter of the town called Khefti-nib-s, the inhabitants of the desert (Heru-sha), and the Aaraoo and all foreign nations are obliged to work, how bowed down are the northern people of Khebau-nib, and extinguished are the Agabot (Libyans), how 'now peace is there, since the inhabitants of the southern lands were driven downwards and the northern people were driven upwards, and how they altogether subjected themselves to the king, how the inhabitants of the wiser country hastened to Pharaoh to bow before his throne how he smote the king of An (the Kushites), and the negroes, how the An of Nubia were hewed in pieces and scattered all over their lands, and how their stink filled the valleys Then the inscription continues. The lords of the great king's house have made a frontier watch of his war people, that they might not be over-ridden by the foreign peoples; they have assembled like the panther against the bull. He remains still; he is blinded. Even to the uttermost end of his realm is the king come; he has reached his extreme boundary through his mighty arm. He sought the struggle, but found it not, which might have offered him resistance. He opened the valleys, which had remained unknown to his forefathers, and which had never beheld the wearer of the double crown. His southern boundary mark was at the beginning of this land, the northern boundary at that water where the traveler downwards turns for his upward journey. Never was this the case under any other king Then the inscription concludes with the words: The land in its complete extent lay at the feet of the king.

The office of a governor of the Southern land or of Kush, mention of which is henceforwards more and more frequently made, to which the real king's sons (the so-called king's sons of Kush) laid claim, was mentioned for the first time under the rule of Thutmose I. On the wall of the temple at Semne there is represented an official called Nehi, of the time of Thutmose I, who had won his spurs under Aahmes and Thutmose I. and was raised by the latter king to this new dignity.

And in fact, the riches of Nubia and Ethiopia made it at all times important for the Pharaohs to secure the possession of these countries, and by governors to carry on the administration and to collect the revenues.

In the course of trade, as also in consequence of the never-ending plundering wars, which were undertaken against the obstinate resistance of these dusky races, there floated, coming from the south down stream, richly laden ships freighted with cattle and rare animals, panther skins, ivory, ebony, other costly woods, balsam, and sweet-smelling resin, gold and precious stones, corn, and lastly, negroes in almost countless numbers, to fill the temples and adorn the palaces of Pharaoh. In the mines of the scorching valleys of the country of Wawa there languished prisoners and negro slaves, who out of deep gullies loosened the gold sprinkled stone from the rocks, crushed it in mills, and with unspeakable pains washed out the particles o gold. Egyptian men-at-arms and foreign soldiers under their captains kept close watch, and looked after the complete fulfilling of the day's work. Where now in our day to the traveler from the banks of the river the temples filled with sand, and the towns and fortresses present themselves drearily on the miserable desolate sides of the narrow Nubian valleys, and a wretched people struggle with want and necessity, and is scarcely able to gain from the scanty soil sufficient to maintain themselves and their cattle, and the date palm alone or in groves 6tretches heavenward its proud head as the only representative of the cheerful green tree world and is overtopped in the background by the dark masses of rock of the long broken mountain chain, there, thirty-four centuries ago was presented to the eye of the wanderer a picture of active life.

In the villages, which were placed in the neighborhood of the temple of the country, there dwelt an industrious dusky population, to whom the Egyptian corn stores delivered the sustenance, which the soil of their own home denied them. The service of the temple, and the neighborhood of the Egyptian fortresses and the frontier guards of Pharaoh, gave them profit enough to support themselves and their cattle. The sailor folk, well experienced in the dangerous cataracts of the Upper Nile, exercised their calling in the service of the king's generals and merchants. These also gained the reward of their labor. On feast days the crowd, bent on piety or amusement, flocked to the stone-built houses of the Gods, or to the grottos of the divine ones, and enjoyed themselves in the pomp of “the Holy Fathers” cheerfully performing the duty of carrying on their shoulders, or in their hands, the golden barks with their divine inhabitants, and exhibiting them to the devout inhabitants of the country surrounding the Temple. If Pharaoh reached the Nubian country in his richly-adorned Nile ship, in whose sails of costly byssus the north wind blew with full power during his day journey upwards, and at night brought to his ship in the harbours, there was no end to the wonder and admiration, the joy and the hurras, for on the part of the king and his exalted courtiers there were rich and gracious gifts to the inhabitants. It answered well to the kings to leave behind them generous presents, so that the inhabitants might learn that the Pharaoh was the father and benefactor of his subjects. These dusky-coloured men might well sing that wonderful song of praise to the king which a rock grotto at Silsilis has preserved for us down to the present day, and the literal translation of which is contained in the following lines: "Hail to thee king of Egypt. Sun of the foreign peoples I Thy name is great in the land of Kush, Where thy war cry resounded thro'. The dwellings of men. Great is thy power Thou beneficent ruler. It puts to shame the peoples. The Pharaoh Life, salvation health to him. He is a shining sun".

After Thutmose I, in the first year of his government, had undertaken his campaign by water against Nubia and Kush, and had fixed the boundaries of his empire to the south, and had returned laden with a rich booty to his home in Egypt, it seemed to him that the favourable moment had arrived to send forward his experienced troops to the east, to attack in their own homes the ancient hereditary enemies of the country, the hated inhabitants of Western Asia. The great war of vengeance against Asia now began, which for nearly 500 years was carried on by succeeding Pharaohs with almost uninterrupted good fortune. Before we follow the wars of King Thutmose, it appears fitting carefully to survey the theatre of the coining important campaigns, and to become acquainted with the peoples and cities whose names from this time forward will constantly come under our notice.

Amenhotep II

King Amenhotep II the son of Thutmosis IV. Amenhotep II came to the throne of Egypt at age 12 years and ruled for 38 years. During his reign, Egypt’s power and influence was drastically reduced. The Hatti (Hittites) attacked the Mitanni and seized Mitanni and Egyptian territorities The Mitanni repeatedly appealed to Egypt to fulfill its treaty obligations, but Egypt would not respond.

Amenhotep II

Cartouche of Amenhotep II:

You can see his cartouche on his crown (on the front of it), which the symbol of Tiy.

From 382 tablets discovered at Tell el-Amarna there were similar appeals from Labayu (Lion of Yahweh) king of Schechem and Abduheba on the throne of Jerusalem. They complain of the invading Habiru and demand that Egypt send military support.

Amenhotep II built no new temples or other monumental works. In fact, the only notable change during his reign was a growth in Egyptian art, an indication of looking inward, not that of an expanding empire.

Scholars believed that he was 44 years when he died.

Related Posts:

Thutmose IV
Djoser (2687-2668 BC)
Narmer (Menes)

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