Some historical records for Egyptian and Greece describe a period of civilization with a united Egypt under the King Menes in 3000 BC. While we often think of Egyptain civilization as suddenly flowering from nothing, and then the immediately building of the pyramids, there is a long prior period during which the Nile Valley was brought into cultivation, and societies and governments developed. This prior period encompassed the 0th and 1st Dynasties. It included the legendary kings. See Cartouche of Narmer and the other pharaohs here
Thus, some Egyptologists list Narmer as the first ruler of Dynasty 1 while others give the honor to Aha, placing the “Scorpion King” and Narmer in Dynasty 0. The First and Second Dynasties are generally referred to as the Archaic Period of Egypt. Perhaps Narmer was the first king in the world who united his home and establish strong empire.
King Narmer seem to be the pharaoh who united the two lands of Egypt based primarily on a shield-shaped sculpture called the Narmer Palette (one of the most attractions of ancient Egypt arts) that has been dated to 3150 – 3125 BC. The front side of the Narmer Palette shows King Narmer wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt in the act of striking an enemy from the marshlands. The rear side shows Narmer wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt (the Nile delta) as he inspects the bodies of headless enemies. When the Narmer Palette discovered?
The important of Narmer palette:
The Egyptian plaque or the palette of Narmer showing him wearing the White garland of Upper Egypt and the Red garland of Lower Egypt is believed to indicate that Narmer united Upper and Lower Egypt into a universal state. Other historical data indicates his central importance. Since the Narmer Palette has been dated to 3150 – 3125 BC we have chosen 3157 BC as the beginning of the universal state of a predynastic period that we will call Nile River civilization.
This palette show that Cloth and writing came at the same time, about 3000 B.C.E. That when Narmer (or Menes) of Upper Egypt (upriver to the south) conquered Lower Egypt (downriver to the north), thus unifying the kingdom. A large commemorative stone shows him about to bonk his kneeling rival over the head.