Senusret II (1897-1878)

King Senusret II (1897 BC-1878BC) or Senwosret II or Sesostris II was the fourth pharaoh of the Dynasty 12. He was the first pharaoh who thought in drainage canal in Faiyum between bahr Yusuf and Lake Moeris. The purpose of Senusret II's project was to increase the amount of cultivable land here. he maybe reign of only ten Years as some scholars believed.

Some historians think that King Senusret II = “Pharaoh Khakheperre” of Dynasty twelve who ordered to settle Israel in Goshen at “Fayoum”. An Eternal historical documentation appears in the drawn message, documented by Joseph, on the north wall of the tomb of Count Khnumhotep II at Beni-Hassan, Egypt, as a “Point in Time” -- “In the year 6 of King Khakheperre”.

The pyramid of Senusret II

Senusret II built his "Shining Pyramid" At the entrance of the Fayoum, of limestone and mud-brick at El Lahun. After the failure of his Dahshur Pyramid, King Amenemhet III abandoned it and started over with a new pyramid located near the modern village of Hawara el-Makta, not far from Lahun.

The pyramid of Senusret II at El-LahunThe pyramid of Senusret II at El-Lahun
(the royal tombs of the family appear in the north)

North of the pyramid, there are eight rock tombs of the royal family and a small pyramid of the queen with burial chamber.

Pectoral with the Name of King Senwosret II, it was found among the jewelry of Princess Sithathoryunet (sit-hathor-you-net) in a special niche of her underground tomb beside the pyramid of King Senwosret II at Lahun. Hieroglyphic signs are amply used in the design, and the whole might actually be read as a text saying, Ò The god of the rising sun grants life and dominion over all that the sun encircles for one million one hundred thousand years [i.e., eternity] to King Khakheperre (Senwosret II).

The arts in the reign of Senusret II, (Princess Sithathoryunet's Pectoral):

This centerpiece of a princess’s necklace is composed around the throne name of King Senwosret II. It was found among the jewelry of Princess Sithathoryunet (sit-hathor-you-net) in a special niche of her underground tomb beside the pyramid of Senwosret II at Lahun. Hieroglyphic signs are amply used in the design, and the whole might actually be read as a text saying, The god of the rising sun grants life and dominion over all that the sun encircles for one million one hundred thousand years [i.e., eternity] to King Khakheperre [Senwosret II].

The deity of the rising sun is present in the two falcons that flank the name of the king, sun disks on their heads and the circular hieroglyphic sign for odominion over time and space’ clutched in their claws. Royal cobras, whose tails encircle the sun disks, hold the king’s cartouche upright, and signs of life (ankhs) hanging from the looped cobra bodies also flank the royal name. The cartouche rests on the bent tops of palm fronds (signs for (year)) that are held by a kneeling Heh, god of eternity and sign for “one million.” A tadpole (sign for “one hundred thousand) dangles from the god’s right elbow.

The symbolism of the design, however, goes beyond this simple text. Notice that the whole group of figures rests on a rectangular bar that is characterized as a reed mat by vertical divisions. The Egyptians used such mats as floor covers for high-status people to sit on and as trays for offerings. This particular mat, decorated with zigzag lines signifying water, is actually a representation of the primeval water from which the earth rose at creation. With the water at the bottom and the sun disks at the top, the pectoral design depicts the world as the Egyptians knew it.

Also significant is the heraldic character of the symmetrical configuration. With pairs of identical figures and emblems facing each other across a central motto, the device is remarkably like a coat of arms of medieval European times. Like all heraldic ensigns, the pectoral proclaims a program: the program of Egyptian kingship. The pharaoh surrounded and protected by gods guarantees the ever renewed creation of life and order in perpetuity.

The pectoral is a masterpiece of Egyptian jewelry making at its peak. The goldsmith surely from the royal workshop set 372 precisely cut pieces of semiprecious stone into tiny cloisons that he had formed from bands of sheet gold set on edge and fused to gold backing plates. The various colored stones bring this filigree of gold to brilliant life.

How to travel to the pyramid of Senusert II?

Senusert II’ pyramid at Illahun (Lahun pyramid) which you can travel there by train or by air.