Middle Kingdom

Middle Kingdom is the period in the ancient Egypt chronology stretching from the establishment of the Dynasty 11 to the end of the Dynasty 14, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC nearly.

The period being two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which governed from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty onwards which was cantered around el-Lisht. These 2 dynasties were primitively considered to be the full extent of this unified kingdom, but historians now consider the 13th Dynasty to leastways partly belong the Middle Kingdom. The latest pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom observed their line to a nomarch of Thebes, (Intef the Great, son of Iku), who is referred in a figure of contemporary letterings. However, his immediate successor Mentuhotep II is advised the first pharaoh of this dynasty. An inscription carved during the reign of Wahankh Intef II pictures that he was the first of this dynasty to claim to govern over the whole of Egypt, a take which brought the Thebeans into fight with the swayer of Herakleopolis Magna, the Dynasty 10. Intef undertook several campaigns north, and caught the important nome of Abydos.

Warfare continued intermittently between the Thebean and Heracleapolitan dynasts to the 14th regnal year of pharaoh Nebhetepra Mentuhotep II, when the Herakleopolitans were sunk, and the Theban dynasty started to consolidate their rule. Mentuhotep II is knew to have commanded campaigns south into Nubia, which had gained its independency on the First Intermediate Period. There is as well evidence for military actions against Palestine. The king reorganized the country and located a vizier at the head of civil governing for the country. Mentuhotep IV was the final pharaoh of this dynasty, and despite being free from various numbers of pharaohs, his reign is attested from a few inscriptions in Wadi Hammamat that record excursions to the Red Sea coast and to quarry stone for the royal repositories. The leader of this outing was his vizier Amenemhat, who is wide assumed to be the future pharaoh Amenemhet I, the first pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty. Amenemhet is wide assumed by some Egyptologists to have either seized the throne or taken power after Mentuhotep IV died unsuccessful.

Amenemhat I built a new capital for Egypt, knew as Itjtawy, thought to be located near the present-day el-Lisht, although the chronicler Manetho takes the capital continued at Thebes. Amenemhat forcibly pacified home unrest, curtailed the rights of the nomarchs, and is known to have at founded at least one effort into Nubia. His son Senusret I continued the policy of his father to retake Nubia and other territories lost during the First Intermediate Period. The Libyans were close under his forty-five year rule and Egypt's successfulness and security were assured. Senusret III (1878 BC – 1839 BC) was a warrior-king, leading his troops deep into Nubia, and built a series of massive forts throughout the country to establish Egypt's formal boundaries with the victorious areas of its territory. Amenemhat III (1860 BC – 1815 BC) is considered the last great pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom. Egypt's population started to exceed food production levels during the rule of Amenemhat III, who then ordered the exploitation of the Faiyum and increased mining operations in the Sinaï forsake. He also invited Asiatic settlers to Egypt to labour on Egypt's monuments. Last in his reign the annual floods along the Nile began to fail, further straining the resources of the government. The Thirteenth Dynasty and Fourteenth Dynasty witnessed the slow decline of Egypt into the Second Intermediate Period in which about of the Asiatic settlers of Amenemhat III would savvy power over Egypt as the Hyksos.